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Table of Contents
January 2008
 
1.       MIND  MATTER   NoeticJournal  Vol  4 # 4, 351- 360 (2003)

2.      Dark chemistry or psychic spin pixels?  

          NeuroQuantology, June 2007,  Vol. 5 # 2: 197-204    ISSN 1303 5150        

            www.neuroquantology.com 

3.      Dark Matter & Dark Chemistry            

        NeuroQuantology Vol 5 # 3 (2007)      

4. Abstract: Dark Chemistry & Paranormal Phenomena 

http://noeticcenter.tripod.com      http://noeticcenter.tripod.com/blog/

MIND MATTER                                                                      NoeticJournal                                                                                                                                Vl 4#4Oct 03                                                                                                                    

Noetic Journal Vol 4, # 4, 351-360, Oct. 2003                            Nobelist Sir John Eccles Centennial Edition.

Dark Chemistry or Psychic Spin Pixel? NeuroQuantology                                   June 2007; Vol. 5 # 2: 197-204                                                                     Dark Matter & Dark Chemistry NeuroQuantology Vol 5 # 3 (2007)                    Benjamin, Philip. Mind Matter Noetic Journal Vol 4 # 4 , 351- 360 (2003)              Nobelist   SirJohnEccles   Centennial Edition  

http://noeticcenter.tripod.com/        

http://noeticcenter.tripod.com/blog/                                         

DarkChemistry or PsychicSpinPixels?                                                                              Dark  matter & Dark Chemistry            NeuroQuantology                                                                                                                         Vl 5 #2 & 3, 07 

MIND MATTER

Philip Benjamin, PhD

In loving memory of Ivy Thomas Benjamin, M.D., over four short decades of life together, whose invisible soma awaits to be energized into the full glory of luminosity, and without whom this work would not have come about.

Philip Benjamin,  PhD                                                                                                        medinuclear@hotmail.com 

Abstract. Dark matter may be just as real as visible matter, but a subtler form of matter. The physical (and chemical) properties of dark matter are unknown. Devoid of electrical charges, the dark matter permeates the visible matter without being detected. Will charge-less particles form dark atoms? Will they then interact strongly with each other and with ordinary matter? If subtle dark matter chemistries exist, they may yield subtle bodies and may give us a theoretical basis for the subtleties of the mind. Then, the possibility exists for dark atom structures and chemistries which are parallel to ordinary structures and chemistries, but undetectable. That sounds like the mind stuff. It is conceivable that the confirmation of a chemically active dark matter will have a greater impact on science in this century than quantum mechanics, information theories, and DNA in the previous century. Mind is admittedly mystifying. It is invisible and undetectable, but is coupled to the physical body, in and through which mind operates. However, a mystery per se need not be metaphysical or mystical.

 

Keywords: Consciousness, Dark matter, Mind, Phonons, Resonance, Spin coupling

______________________________________________________________________________________________

1. Mind Matter

Wave function collapse is universal, but complex mental phenomena are unique to humans. So, the mental world must have sources other than wave function collapse. Jung and Pauli (See Meier, 1992) suggested a thought-field with its own elementary particles. Since thoughts are invisible any such field and particles must also be imperceptible. It must be a hidden physical field parallel to that of the ordinary material realm. The dark matter realm may fill the bill.

Present data seem to indicate that ordinary (baryonic) matter constitutes only about ten percent of all matter. Both theoretical physics and cosmological models predict the possibility of existence of certain type of exotic particles (nonbarionic), which are strands of localized energy in space, with very low mass and no charge.

Predictions of super-symmetry theory in particle physics, also suggest the existence of vast amount of dark matter (R. Peccei and H. Quinn, 1977). The two major possible candidates for the dark matter, with the amusing acronyms MACHOs and WIMPS, are the Massive Astrophysical Compact Halo Objects (West, 1992) and Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (Griest, 1993; West, 1992).

WIMPS are the little weak dark matter candidates, which are thought to be made of exotic stuff, called non-baryonic matter. Astronomers look for MACHOs and particle physicists for WIMPs.

2. Dark Matter Realm

Current speculations about the Big Bang do not conclude that all forms of matter began at this event (Trefil J. 1993; Silk, 1989). Dark matter may have been present even before the presumed Big Bang event. Luminous matter is what is claimed to be formed during this singular event.

The microwave background radiation of the universe (the "echo" from the Big Bang) and the red shift which shows an expanding universe are presented as quantitative experimental evidences supporting the hot Big Bang Theory. Both of these phenomena are based on observation of radiation from luminous matter. This does not rule out that some form of "dark matter" may have existed before the Big Bang and the primordial production of atoms. Conceptual bias notwithstanding, dark matter field theories are likely to be developed more systematically within a theoretical framework of a unified field theory, that includes gravitational and electromagnetic fields. Dark matter fields may have been primal phenomena within a physically expanding universe. There are many categories of WIMPs suspected. Various theorists have dubbed some of them supersymmetric particles, photinos, neutralinos, cosmic strings or membranes, preons, quark nuggets, monopoles etc. Microleptons also have been proposed. Another candidate for dark matter is a theoretical non-thermal particle called the axion. This type of matter may fall into the broad category of "dark matter", because it is invisible, and cannot be easily detected being electrically charge-less. Our visible bodies could be permeated by it, without us ever knowing. All the other candidates for dark matter were created in cosmic thermal processes and have thermal velocities, including the thermal axions presently being created in the sun.

However, there are no definitive conclusions about the exact nature, size, shape, mass or form of dark particles, except that they have no electric charge. Being charge-less, dark matter does not interact with electric charge. In the ordinary chemical sense, there is no reason for it to preferentially interact with body physiology, which is charge dependent. So, chemists have not looked into the possibilities of extra-ordinary chemistries, though extra ordinary matter has been known to physics since the 1930’’s as a necessary ingredient of the cosmos. Mass estimates of dark matter range from tiny subatomic particles weighing 100,000 times less than an electron to black holes with masses millions of times that of the sun (Mateo, 1994). In order to accurately describe the structure of dwarf galaxies, Wayne Hu et al (2000) assumed an arbitrary mass of 10-22 electron volt. He claims this is reasonable, since the mass of dark matter particles is an unknown, adjustable parameter. Its quantum mechanical, or de Broglie wavelength (non-thermal) would then be a few thousand light-years, large enough to span the whole galactic core, which automatically spread out the mass from the centers of dwarf galaxies and match observations more closely. This is called "fuzzy cold dark matter". Such particles would form a colossal Bose-Einstein condensate in and around every galaxy, a state known to exist only for ultra cold atoms in laboratories. If the mass of an axion is about one billionth of an electron mass, the axion wave extends well beyond the earth. Then it is plausible that the axion matter must be a BEC from ambient to perhaps even to solar temperatures. In the ordinary physical world of electrons and protons, BECs can exist only at ultra cold temperatures, but the extraordinary world of axions may have this intrinsic property at all temperatures, satisfying the zero-point temperature requirement for a BEC. This is of significance for information theories and processes, and hence for the invisible mind. A conceptual leap from the invisible matter to invisible mind is appealing. Axion Atoms

Presently it is assumed that axions exist apart from ordinary matter and interact very weakly with it. If a symmetry breaking process produced cosmic axions before matter and anti-matter recombined, the number of axions will be comparable to the number of photons in the universe. It is estimated that there must be more than 10 trillion axions for each proton and neutron in the cosmos, making them a major part of dark matter. Physicist John Cramer ("http://mist.npl.washington.edu/av/altvw05.html) claims that axions are geometrically similar to an electric and a magnetic field oriented parallel to each other, so that intense electric and/or magnetic fields can theoretically transform axions into photons of all energies including microwaves. Axions of Wayne Hu et al (2000) have a mass of 10-22 electron volt, with non-thermal de Broglie wavelength of a few thousand light-years spanning the galaxies. An axion of 1 eV = 17.83 x 10-31 gm i.e. about one- tenth of a million-trillion-trillionth of a gram, has thermal de Broglie wavelength of about 12.0 x 10-10m (or 12 Angstrom units, A). The average optical wavelength is about 6000 x 10-10m, i.e. 6000 Angstrom units; the average atomic wavelength at ambient conditions is about 0.166 x 10-10m, about 36,000 times lesser. The smallest atom is about 1 Angstrom in diameter. The mass of choice for axion will be such that it isomorphously permeates each subatomic particle.

It is inane to think that such dark matter are afloat carrying information and solving the mind-body problem. It is not free floating subatomic particles, but a structured configuration that constitute ordinary matter. So also, corresponding structured configurations of dark atomic particles of very low mass and capable of dark chemistry seem to be an interesting prospect. Toward that goal, the following assumptions are made:

1. Axions of very low mass are confined to the dimensions of ordinary subatomic particles. They occupy the same space that the fundamental particles occupy, but with masses several orders less than one electron volt.

2. They will permeate the visible particles and atoms in an isomorphic manner, and become indistinguishable from the latter.

3. They may form axion atoms possessing bonding properties, through spins and configurations of constituent units.

4. Specific axion dark atom exists corresponding to each known ordinary atom. This relationship will be similar to that between objects and their signs.

5. Certain elemental relations exist which govern the axions such as spin, gravity (exchange of gravitons), resonance, entanglement or an yet to be determined bonding force.

6. Coupling of these dark atoms to the ordinary atoms is possible.

7. Associated with every axion particle is an undetectable charge "C" that can be plus or minus similar to electrical.

A hydrogen atom may have a dark counterpart existing parallel to it. Its one proton and one electron (and no neutron) may each have its shadow axion form condensed within its dimensions and permeating it. Similarly all known atoms will have their protons, neutrons and electrons isomorphously suffused by their shadow axion forms.

For dark chemistries to occur, these are confined to the ordinary atomic dimensions, with their wavelengths condensed to those of ordinary atoms. If these axions must interact with physical energy and be coupled to physical particles, that should be through mechanisms that are logical and relevant to the physical realm. In the visible realm of ordinary (baryonic) particles, electric charge is the bonding force between them. No such charge exists in the extraordinary non-baryonic matter. However there are such physical forces as spin, gravity (graviton exchange), resonance, entanglement or an as yet undetermined force, which may bond these dark particles together and or bind them to the visible particles. [There are many non-falsifiable theories afloat such as axion fields, spin fields, microleptonic fields, heterogeneous physical vacuum, torsion fields etc]. Then, such invisible axion bodies may form the substrate extraordinaire for the mental realm.

Dark chemistries parallel to and coupled to ordinary chemistries, will involve electrically charge-less components of dark matter atoms and their reactions through some kind of bonding. Spins and configurations of electrons lead to chemical bonding in ordinary matter. Same phenomena may occur in these axion atoms also. It could be through an intrinsic angular momentum (spin) with clockwise and anticlockwise directions (positive and negative signs). Then spin-spin coupling between dark particles may facilitate dark chemistries parallel to normal chemistries. The spin-charge coupling of dark and ordinary matter may lead to coupling of the ordinary subatomic particles to their dark counterparts. In addition, there is the possibility of resonance, entanglement and graviton exchange, which may be facilitating factors for interactions that lead to possible dark atom chemistries occurring parallel to ordinary chemistries.

This may lead to a dichotomy or even trichotomy of physical entities (made of both visible and dark atoms), depending on how one wants to look at this complex hierarchy. The dichotomy will be made of ordinary matter and processes coupled to dark matter and dark processes. That will be a diune structure of ordinary matter and dark energy states. The trichotomy will be triune hierarchical states of ordinary matter, dark matter and energy processes. In other words, the trichotomy will consist of ordinary physicality, extraordinary physicality, and energy processes (both dark and visible). Interactions of Dark Matter Axions can be as Bose-Einstein-Condensate (BEC), which pervade all matter, from ambient to solar environment. However, we are interested only in axions that are confined or condensed within baryonic particles. As already stated, different axion atoms with different but negligible mass, and zero electric charge, may be held together by a binding force other than electromagnetic. The binding force may result from spin, resonance, gravity, entanglement or an as yet unknown force. Then we need to consider:

1. Dark atomic structures similar to those of the ordinary atoms.

2. Bonding between dark atoms, through spin and configurations as in ordinary matter.

3. Coupling of dark atoms to the ordinary atoms.

The first two aspects have to address the prospects of electrically charge-less components of dark matter atoms, and their reactions through some kind of bonding. Spin and configuration, entanglement [coupling of the two such that the state of the one determines the state of the other] or an yet to be determined force, may be involved. The asymmetries of structure or forms may also be pertinent factors here. The third question of dark matter coupling to ordinary matter may involve resonance and gravity (exchange of gravitons).

If dark atom chemistries are plausible, a hierarchy of products may exist, from dark molecules, genes, cells gametes, and organs to dark organisms, covering all stages of the development of life. These will exist parallel to and isomorphously permeating their visible counterparts. Thus, a dark soma may exist coupled to the visible body and parallel to it. These doubles of luminous atoms coupled to their dark matter forms produce the doubles of atoms, molecules, cells, organs and organisms. The dark forms exist in parallel to the corresponding luminous (ordinary) structures. For example, the ordinary DNA is suffused with an information loaded dark DNA. The genetic code and information on the dark DNA’s may also have phylogenic specificities. From the zygote to the total human body, all constituents made of ordinary matter are permeated by their axion counterparts. Spin Coupling

If the charge-less shadow particles possess an intrinsic angular momentum (spin) with clockwise and anticlockwise directions (positive and negative signs), spin-spin coupling between dark particles may facilitate dark chemistries parallel to normal chemistries. Instead of, or in addition to, spin-spin coupling, there is the possibility of resonance, entanglement and exchange of gravitons. The spin-charge coupling of dark and ordinary matter may lead to coupling of the shadow particles to the subatomic particles.

Evidence seems to be mounting for a positive answer to the question regarding the relationship of the axions to the ordinary matter. It is difficult to conceive of a kind of matter that interacts gravitationally with ordinary matter in the normal way and yet fails to distribute itself in the same geometric formation as that of normal matter. If dark matter is governed by conventional gravity, its distribution will be the same as normal matter. However, it interacts with itself differently from how ordinary matter does with other ordinary matter. Perhaps, spin, entanglement and resonance and quantum properties may play their roles in dark atom interactions.

Existence of spin-coupling forces remains open. Any coupling relation existing between luminous and dark matter in a galaxy cluster core should in principle shed light on the physical properties of dark matter relative to the visible mater and perhaps on the nature of dark matter itself. In two recent papers, Giraud (1998) showed that the observed kinematics of disk rotating systems are consistent with a coupling relation between the visible (stars + gas) and dark mass distributions. One force that does act on both is gravity, which means we should be able to detect this effect. There is also the possibility of spin-charge coupling between dark and ordinary particles and spin-spin coupling between dark particles.

Quantum Coupling

In quantum mechanics, coherence coupling involves objects being in more than one state at the same time. This uncanny concept known as superposition makes instantaneous interaction between objects possible. Quantum computing is an ingenious method of computation that tries to use quantum coupling to carry out logical operations and develop quantum computers. Spin-spin coupling in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is an example of quantum coupling where the states of two particles are shared. Quantum coupling is being used to develop quantum computers at IBM. Since such coupling can take place over long distances by the process of entanglement, the coupling is said to be simultaneous. Regardless of whether quantum coupling is really simultaneous or just so fast that it seems simultaneous to us, it is a highly reliable and predictable phenomenon. It is vital to life and makes nanotechnology possible.

According to the second law of thermodynamics, no coupling can be 100% efficient in a physical system. However, muscles and brains have molecular motors known as actomyosin complexes which couple energy from ATP into mechanical motion with nearly 100% thermodynamic efficiency.

Resonance Coupling

Structural resonance contributes to the stability of many molecules or ions. A classical example is the hexagonal benzene molecule with alternate single and double bonds (chemical). This is very common in chemical states, especially organic chemistry where different electronic configurations of the same compound contribute to its extra ordinary stability. Benzene molecule is a well-known example. Usually reality is best represented by a hybrid structure of the resonance entity. Resonance between different electronic configurations strengthens the bonding between adjacent atoms and distributes charge over a greater number of atoms. The hybrid becomes more stable than any individual resonance structure. Here, resonance means stability. (Riordan, p. 213, also: Silk, p. 125).

An analogy with Phonon-Photon coupling may be relevant. In solid-state physics, a phonon is a quantum of lattice vibrational energy. In analogy to a photon (a quantum of light) in electromagnetism, the phonon can be viewed as a wave packet with particle-like properties. Its behavior characteristics determine or affect various properties of solids. When photons and phonons interact in semiconductors used in communications systems, undesirable system behavior can occur (Weik 1989). The energy of a phonon is usually less than 0.1 eV (electron volt) and thus is one or two orders of magnitude less than that of a photon. [See the American National Standard Dictionary for Information Technology (ANSDIT), ANSI X3.197-1996, and the draft of the Millennial Edition of ANSDIT 2000].

Matter + mechanical energy = matter + photon emission + phonon emission.

The classical mechanical excitation has a continuous character, but the response energy (photons) is quantified. That is, the mechanical energy is concentrated from the macroscopic and continuous distribution to the local quantum distribution in the atomic scale. In the absorption-emission reactions in solids by mechanical action, the energy transformation occurs from continuous into the quantum states. Likewise, the continuous phonon energy is coupled to the discontinuous light energy. A similar process may exist between the dark and the luminous bodies (and processes). There will be individual differences in these resonance processes.

Resonance may be esoteric, but not metaphysical or mystical. At the quantum level there may be a unified field resonating to intensify, through sympathetic vibration, the interactions necessary for any contextual event or phenomenological moment. Such resonance innately possess complementary aspects of existence and experience such as "conscious and unconscious, voluntary and automatic, nurture and nature, wave and particle, time and space (Keener, 1999). It is a contrasting continuum of complementary characteristics. Holistic self-organization is possible. The luminous body particles may resonate recursively with its shadow self. There may be an explicit quantitative and an implicit qualitative aspect of this dark-luminous particle resonance, at the quantum level.Extraordinary Chemistry

With the development of Quantum Mechanics, the atom is no longer considered a solid indivisible mass of particle that cannot interpenetrate other atoms, as was assumed by Dalton, the English chemist and school teacher who developed the atomic theory over one hundred years ago. Only, it does have a solid appearance due to interactions of the electric field. Absence of electric charge in dark matter raises questions about its combining capacity. Some force other than electromagnetic must bind the axion atoms. They could then form a hierarchy of atoms, molecules, compounds, cells etc. which will invisibly penetrate the corresponding visible entities. These dark atoms could interact with each other by their own individual binding force, much like ordinary atoms interact mutually through their electromagnetic binding force.

It must be noted that the electric charge is a property of the luminous matter, not a thing in itself. So is spin. When charged bodies interact, that interaction is between properties. We know the role that spins play in chemical interactions. Besides, there may be other charge-equivalent properties enabling charge-less dark matter to interact and lead to dark chemistries and dark physiology at the cellular level. Graviton-exchange, resonance, spin, entanglement or an as yet unknown force may enable them to interact between themselves, couple to and resonate with the ordinary physical world. Surprisingly, modern chemistry somehow has so far omitted dark matter for any such considerations.

If these atoms interact with each other through their own distinct binding force, that may lead to subtle chemistries and subtle bodies. Subtle bodies made up of different types of invisible matter, could be a venue to shift the problem of consciousness. This would suggest that mind may be invisible, but superbly physical, of an exotic form, a spiritual body (1Corinthians 15:44). [This is no justification for those who see their double. Most probably that is a result of chemical imbalance or malformations in the brain! Do not attribute this to dark matter].

The Axions of Mind: Microleptons

As stated already, the axions may exist as both local and cosmic BEC. Eminent Russian researchers posit the idea of an universal lepton gas, having several levels of particle masses between 10-40 and 10-30 grams, with full information about the material world. Anatoly Okhatrin (1989), a Russian physicist, claims that super weak electromagnetic pulses and clusters of the lightest particles called micro leptons carry visual and audible signals, as well as thoughts and feelings, traveling in space-time at almost the speed of light. Super weak pulses of electromagnetic and micro lepton fields carry them. Visual, audible, and other images, and all thoughts and feelings exist in the form of clusters of super light elementary particles of micro leptons. These are reminiscent of Plato's eidoses (ideas or thoughts) autonomously afloat in the air with no boundaries and Aristotelian forms. Thus, thoughts and feelings are material, according to the micro lepton concept. Expressed in mathematical formulae, every single human thought has a mass of weight varying from 10^-30 to 10^-40 g. It must be emphasized that, these are all unverifiable speculations and irreproducible experiments. However, if confirmed, these will be momentous findings. Even if an axion medium exists that is capable of computation, that by itself cannot explain mind and consciousness. These axions must be in a structured form.

If micro hadrons such as micro protons and micro neutrons made of micro quarks, and also micro leptons such as micro electrons exist, they all will have zero electric charge. Their masses are few orders of magnitude less than 1 eV. For the somatic axions, we assume that they have their wave functions reduced to zero except within the physical bounds of protons, neutrons and electrons. A dark atom is composed of these dark micro particles. These dark atoms may combine to yield dark chemistries. The mediator, in the quantum depiction of this process may be as elusive as graviton. It is not necessary to totally rule out an intrinsic angular momentum or "spin" for these particles, which could be clockwise (+) or counterclockwise (-). These spins may facilitate dark interactions and dark chemistries via bond forming configurations. These processes analogous and parallel to their luminous counterparts. We assume that micro dark atoms could be formed through these forces, much the same way as ordinary atoms, according to rules similar to the Auf-Bau principle of atomic structure. The resonance between the dark and visible bodies offer a new approach to explicate mental phenomena.

Alternatively, the micro proton may have a positive attractive force of +f; the micro-electron may have a negative attractive force of -f. The micro neutron has zero f, where f is an undetermined force factor. For convenience, the micro electron, micro proton and micro neutron are respectively named emoton, psychon (McCulloch and Pitts, 1943) and neumaton. Collectively they may be given the term noumenon, though not necessarily in the Kantian sense. The noumenon here is a permeating axion that isomorphously condenses within an ordinary subatomic particle.

Since all life forms are made of the same matter, certain structural and functional similarities at the basic level of the cell components can exist in the different phyla. However, there is a sharp delineation into plant, animal and human, from the inanimate world. The DNA information, both dark and ordinary, is a causal factor here. The ordinary and the dark DNA code seem to differ in content of information in plants, animals and humans.

There seems to be genetically determined different subsets of subatomic particles and their dark counterparts in plants, animals and humans. The information associated with the dark matter is different in the animate and inanimate realms; so also are the dark chemistries in each realm. Plants have only emotons; animals have emotons and psychons but no neumatons. Humans have all the three. These differences and/or selectivity are genetically ordained. [See McCulloch and Pitts, 1943 for use of the term psychons]

Plant cells have (electron + Emoton), proton and neutron, where proton and neutron are also suffused with axions which are not confined within them and do not enter into any dark reactions. Alternatively, all the three elementary particles may have the dark counterparts. In either case, the plant genetic materials (both dark and visible) have information that determines the nature and functions of the plant cells. Animal cells have (Psychon + protons), (electron + emoton) and neutron. The dark matter permeates the neutrons in animal cells but have no dark atom chemistries, because the axions are not confined within their neutrons. Then again, all the three elementary particles of animal cells may have the dark complements. In either case, the animal genetic materials (both dark and visible) have information that determines the nature and functions of the animal cells. Humans have all the three subatomic particles permeated with the axions. Human genetic materials, made of both ordinary and dark matter, have information that determines the nature and functions of the human cells.

The genetic structure is almost identical in all animals, plants and bacteria. The close resemblance between insects and vertebrates, humans and bacteria are startling! The organs and limbs of animals, the roots, leaves and flowers of plants have all nearly the same universal DNA double helix. For any given living organism, all its cells descend from one cell. Since all living forms are made of the same gluons, quarks and electrons which are completely and exhaustively described by the laws of physics (Tipler, 1994, p xi), it is often assumed that there must be a message about an "all encompassing principle of the unity of life, even more universal than the cell theory" (Klein, 1970, p 150). Yet, living systems are so diverse, even within the same phylum, indicating a corresponding diversity in genetic information. The similarities in the visible genetic structures fails to account for the phylogenic order, including the levels of consciousness and the hierarchy of mental activities, in the biosphere. The subsets described above of subatomic particles and the noumenons of axion like dark matter particles can account for these differences. The electron subsets are the same for all plants, animals and humans. The proton subsets are the same for animals and humans, but different in plants. The neutron subsets are found only in humans and this matrix is empty for both plants and animals. In other words, only emotons participate in plant cells, both emotons and psychons are involved in the animal cells. Only in humans, all three noumenons are active. The information on these subsets within the genetic materials is species specific. Resonance & Consciousness

Resonance has a relational character. Two or more apparently different things or phenomena are linked. They can selectively communicate being integrated into a systemic whole. The links that unite the visible physical objects and the dark-matter processes have their source in the process of resonance. It initiates and amplifies a vibratory response (a link) in the visible receiving system that is attuned to the dark emitting system, rather similar to tuning a radio set to different radio frequencies. The frequency of the receiving and the emitting systems must be very close or equal. During resonance, the dark matter frequencies can be received by the corresponding foci of the visible body, when energy transfers from the emitting source to the receiver. The received energy brings with it the information forms and patterns of vibrations of the emitting source. Specific energies may be associated with specific feelings, inner states, information, ideas, etc.

The details of how the subtle and the ordinary bodies interact can be now pursued without resorting to metaphysics. Scientific methodology may not be effectively applicable for this purpose, until we can experiment with subtle matter directly in super colliders. Then, science, philosophy and psychology and all related fields may possibly undergo a significant revolution, cognitively and technologically. The physical and the mental will loose their customarily dualistic implications. There will be no need for the mystical underpinnings for consciousness, either. What is mental may be a super-physical reality. There is nothing unusual about it in the Western thought, since physical resurrection has been a fundamental New Testament principle, well reasoned and articulated by the Apostle Paul (1 Corinthians Chapter 15, among many others).

Then science need not accept and entertain spooky notions and make quantum leaps in to the bizarre to explain consciousness. The resonance between the luminous structural forms and their nonluminous forms made of dark matter is a physical phenomenon, making one recognize the other. This enables us to shift the problem of sentience and consciousness to this subtle body and leave the operational functions to the visible body, and offers a conceptual basis to work from. A dark matter body may be wrapped up in us without being detected. That seems like the mind stuff. But it is physical.

Self-awareness is a recognition problem. In the resonance of the parallel structures, each structure is programmed to identify its resonant forms. Recognition is a resonance phenomenon. Resonance between the ordinary and dark matter system act as a body/mind transducer. Consciousness stays as long as the ordinary energy form is connected to the dark matter energy forms. When the body disintegrates, the axion forms remain in a dormant state. It will require enormous energy to awaken this state and re-entangle with the visible forms of matter.

Storage and retrieval are the same neuronal procedures. New thoughts will be stored in the axion memory. A new axion thought just "triggers" an old one and the thoughts linked to it, according to the general principle of signaling in the nervous system. This is not Cartesian dualism. It ascribes phenomenal contents to dark-matter forms. Thus, in principle, there is a link between extended brain-state patterns and the extended shapes of phenomenal experience. Then it is no mystery that a circular pattern in the brain substrate would correlate with the same shape in phenomenal experience, rather than a cubical shape. Paradigm Shift

Abandoning a baryon-centric view of the physical world to a more complex baryon-nonbaryon system should not collapse the well-established standard model of the particle world. It may dethrone electrons, neutrons and protons (or ordinary baryons) from the center of the physical realm and add an invisible world in resonance with and coupled to the visible world. Possibly, this may offer a scientific basis for solving the mind-body problem. The invisible conscious mind may be of this extraordinary medium. The ordinary brain and the axion brain will exist in resonance and in parallel with each other.

A spiritual body is in tune with the original Hebraic and orthodox Christian view of a physical resurrection as found in both the Hebrew and Greek Testaments. (See Job 19:26, Daniel 12: 2-3; Isaiah 26: 19; Mathew 28:9; John 20:27; 21:13-20; 1 Corinthians 15: 44). The difference between a spiritual body and a physical spirit is only semantic. A spiritual body may be an all-pervading body of nonbaryonic matter with no electric charge. This extraordinary stuff may be the axion like dark matter. The mysterious physical-spiritual gap is bridged by means of dark matter. The subtle physics and chemistry of this exotic matter may yield subtle bodies. This may enable us to have a deeper perspective of life, mind, consciousness, the nature of man (pristine and fallen), our position in the universe, a better appreciation of our actions, decisions, free-will and their consequences at personal, social, and global levels.

One may have to learn to acclimatize to the idea that what is coupled to and operates on a physical body may very well be superbly or extraordinarily physical. Interestingly, the Biblical record begins with an affirmative statement involving the Creative Word: "Let there be light" (Genesis 1: 2-3). The light here refers to "luminosity", in the original Hebrew. This is stated differently in John 1:1, as "in the beginning was the Word". "Word" archetypically presupposes vibrations of some sort. Because "light or luminosity was separated from darkness"(Genesis 1:3), it seems to indicate here that darkness or dark matter existed before light or luminous matter, and not all of this obscure stuff, or dark matter, was turned into luminosity. Many times in the Hebrew and Greek Scriptures, darkness refers to obscure matter (see James Strong‘s Concordance). Darkness is referred as follows: "He sets an end to darkness"; "darkness hid in its secret places"; "a swaddling band set for darkness"; "where is its place" (Job 28:3, Job 20:26, 38:9, 38:19); "darkness was under His feet"; "made darkness His secret place", "darkness round about Him"; "blackness of darkness" (Ps. 18:11, Ps 18:9, Jude 13). The space between the "let there be light" instant and the separation of luminous matter from dark matter constitutes time, i.e. space-time.

In a general sense, the physics of the brain and the dynamics of conscious mind are related through invisible quantum entities. Neurons are made of semi-local waves of matter in "vacuum" space enveloped by non-local waves. These semi-localized waves collapse into stable structures in the cosmic expanse permeated by "all the non-local waves", as well as some unknown dark matter waves. Thus, a neuron is semi-locally structured piece of the quantum-vacuum continuum, interfacing "matter" and the "vacuum". In this flow of matter-energy quanta, there is an invisible resonance mechanism that generates, store, transfer and recognize information. Dark-matter structures may provide a base for this dark mechanism.

At the primary level of reality, the perceptible physical universe itself may be a manifestation of thought. The ontological fabric of the universe smacks of a thought-stuff (Edington, 1928, Jeans, 1929). This mind-stuff need not be metaphysical. It may be the invisible axion forms. As such, the mind-stuff may be a fundamental property of the universe made of discrete quanta of dark matter. There need be no infinite number of parallel universes, as certain interpretations of the quantum theory would require (Everett, 1957). One invisible (dark) parallel universe of intelligence that can produce an immense array of information may straddle the visible universe. The psychons, neumatons and emotons described above may provide the components of this mind stuff, each geometrically permeating the corresponding ordinary particle counterpart. The phenomenon of subjectivity is "an imagining spun out by this mind stuff" (Edington (1928) in resonance with the perceptible physical counterparts.

They are not free floating dark matter particles, but axion-like extraordinary matter existing as Bose-Einstein Condensates (BEC). They are confined within and permeate their conjugate luminous particles (proton, neutron and electron). For each of the physical atom (phi-atom) in the system, a corresponding mind atom (psy-atom) exists. The structure of dark matter and dark chemistries will then provide a means to arrive at the structure of mind. In other words, the elusive mind stuff is made of axion like dark matter.

The relation between dark and luminous matter forms may be similar to the semiotic relation between objects and their signs. A manifold S1 of ordinary objects is bound up with an isomorphous manifold of S2 dark objects, with certain fundamental relations existing between the two. An array of phenomenal qualities defined by axion like dark matter structures or conformations may be ordered in a 3-dimensional space, according to their apparent similarities. This will correspond to a neuronal system whose states also can be arranged in a 3-dimensional state space (See Lockwood, 1989). The two states may be equated with each other. The phenomenal qualities may be identical with the dark matter states, confined within, corresponding to, and in resonance with, the ordinary physical systems. Secondary qualities like colors are then merely a series of values of mathematical functions related to the three dimensions of space (Weyl, H, 1934). The secondary properties need not reside in the invisible and inexplicable extra spatial dimensions of something like M-theory, or Bohm’s curious hidden variables. They are simply the dark neuronal structures. Conclusion

Human consciousness is evident but not physically detectable. A non-material thing can be purely physical, such as the photon, neutrino, energy, field, space, time etc., but it makes no such sense to suggest that non-material mind can be physical. The only physical mind that science recognizes is the brain. Axions, and possibly axion atoms made of axion fundamental particles, make it plausible that the invisible mind stuff is physical. Due to the absence of electrical charges in dark matter, other forces such as resonance, spin, graviton-exchange, entanglement or an as yet undetermined force may enable them to interact between themselves, couple to and resonate with the ordinary physical world. Spin and configuration may play important roles here, as in ordinary chemical bonds. The mind-body problem will putatively shift to this invisible internal physicality. A model of consciousness could be developed on the basis that the resonance of a dark soma made of quantum coherent axion like Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC), with its corresponding ordinary body. Resonance makes each body recognize the other. Recognition is awareness.

Acknowledgments Heartfelt thanks to my sons, Ivan, Evan, Bevan and Cyril, and to Rev. & Mrs. Stoney Shaw for the many helps, observations and stimulating discussions.

References Cramer, John ("http://mist.npl.washington.edu/av/altvw05.html)

Eddington, Sir Arthur Stanley, 1928. The New Encyclopedia Britannica, 30 Volumes, Vol. 6, Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc., 298

Everett III, Hugh. 1957. "Relative state" formulation of quantum mechanics. Rev. Mod. Phys. 29:

454-462.

Geroch, R. 1984. Npos, 4, 617-33

Giraud, E. 1998, Astrophysical Journal, 116, 1125, 2177

Griest, Kim. The Search for the Dark Matter: WIMPs and MACHOs. Annals of the New York

Academy of Sciences. vol 688. 15 June 1993: 390-407.

Hu, Wayne, Rennan Barkana, and Andrei Gruzinov (2000) Physical Review Letters 85, 1158

issue of 7 August, Fuzzy Cold Dark Matter

http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v85/p1158

Jeans, 1929, The Mysterious Universe, p 186, New York: Macmillan, 1932

Keener, Matt C, 1999 A Theory of Life

Lockwood, Michael, 1989 Mind, Brain and the Quantum (Oxford, Basil Blackwell).

Mateo, Mario. "Searching for Dark Matter." Sky and Telescope. Jan. 1994: 20-24

Meier, C.A (editor), 1992 "Wolfgang Pauli and C.G.Jung. Ein Briefwechsel 1934-1958"

McCulloch, W. S., and Pitts, W. H., Bull. Math. Biophys. 5, 115, 1943. Pauli, W., Letter to Jung

dated 27.February 1953, Springer Verlag .

Northoff, George 2003, Qualia & Ventral Prefrontal Cortical Function' (JCS Vol.10, #8)

Okhatrin, Anatoly, Doklady 1989, [See Physicsweb.org/article/world/15/7/7, Strange Events Hit

Rural England, Matin Durrani, Dy Editor, Physics World News: July 2002].

Peccei, R. D., and H. R. Quinn, CP Conservation in the Presence of Pseudo particles,"

Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1440 (1977). Constraints Imposed by CP Conservation in the Presence of a

Pseudo particle," Phys. Rev. D 16, 1791 (1977)

Riordan, Michael and David Schramm, 1991. The Shadows of Creation: Dark Matter and the

Structure of the Universe. New York: W. H. Freeman and Co.

Silk, Joseph, 1989. The Big Bang (revised edition), USA: W. H. Freeman & Co.

Trefil J. 1993, Dark Matter. Smithsonian, 1993: 29.

Weik, M, 1989 Communications Standard Dictionary, 2nd ed., Dr. M. Weik, 1989 (Van

Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, NY.

West, Michael J., 1992 "Clusters of Galaxies. The Astronomy and Astrophysics Encyclopedia.

New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Weyl, H Mind and Nature, pp. 8-10, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1934.

Philip P. Benjamin, PhD

medinuclear@hotmail.com

2280 McKelvey Road

St. Louis MO 63043

End of  Noetic Journal Vol.4 No.4, October 2003  351

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

jcs-online@yahoogroups.com   Monday, November 1, 2004 4:42 PM

11-01-04

Is a self-caused being possible, except in the case of an Uncaused Cause. Is
a self-caused action (i.e. an action not caused by another) impossible? I
suppose, the answer to both is no.

We cannot *be* (exist) prior to our *being* (existence), but we have to *be*
before we can *do*. Even a do-nothing being is logical. One has to exist
(perhaps in invisible Aristotelian forms, along with the physical forms),
before one can act.

The Platonic ineffable form will not be adequate to explain consciousness.
However, there is no need to separate the engine from the energy, or
Piaget's cognitive constructs from actual physical structures, if the Aristotelian forms are *real*. There seems to be a scientific basis for the reality of these forms (as invisible but real physical configurations, if dark matter and possibly dark chemistry are also taken into consideration), which is brought out in a recent Noetic Journal article (Vol 4, # 4, October 2003, Eccles Centennial Edition).

Copy & paste on your browser:

http://noeticcenter.tripod.com/

http://noeticcenter.tripod.com/periodictableofpersonalities/

Best regards

Philip Benjamin
medinuclear@hotmail.com

July 4, 07

NeuroQuantology | June 2007 | Vol. 5 | Issue 2 | 

Benjamin P., Dark chemistry or psychic spin pixels

ISSN 1303 5150 www.neuroquantology.com

 Dark Chemistry or Psychic Spin Pixels?

Philip Benjamin PhD

Abstract

The search for universal laws of mental properties cannot be confined to neural correlates and chemical signals alone. Descriptions of subtle mental phenomena best fits characteristics of substance which today is categorized as Dark Matter. Physical concepts that describe spin, chemical bonds, molecular configurations and cellular structures can be extended to dark matter counterparts (axions), to yield an excellent physical model as a basis for the understanding of mental and psychic phenomena. Dark chemistry seems viable and natural. The mounting scientific evidence of different bands of biophotons from different taxa indicates a natural, most likely genetic, selectivity of different types of dark particles in different taxa. Mind and consciousness need not be mystical or magical.

Key words: Dark Matter, Dark Chemistry, Biophotons, Spin Pixels 

Huping Hu and Maoxin Wu (2001, 2004, 2006) try to explain consciousness by attempting to interpret anesthesia in terms of particle spin and quantum entanglement. They report that magnetic pulses applied to the brain, having a general anesthetic also placed in between, and produce anesthesia lasting for many hours, similar to inhalation of the anesthetic. The experiment was reproducible on four subjects (Drinking water, several medications including morphine all exposed to magnetic pulses, laser light, microwave or even flashlight also causes consistently reproducible brain effects in various degrees, when an anesthetic sample was placed in between). They attribute this to the consequence of entanglement between quantum entities inside the brain and those of the chemical substance under study induced by the photons from the magnetic pulses or applied lights. These quantum entities are supposed to be nuclear and/or electron spins, which they claim is basically the "mind-pixel" or the "linchpin" between a dualistic system of coexisting mind and brain. The inference is that an ontological "spin process" cause or mediates consciousness.

Though the external anesthetic transfers no spin pattern to the brain cells, they suppose that the spins in the brain and those in the anesthetic interconnect through quantum entanglement, resulting in transfer of actual anesthetic properties of the chemical agent to the brain. It must be noted that drugs act on the brain by means of chemical binding which itself is in the final analysis a spin related phenomenon. Chemical bonding is an attempt by elements to reach stability through electron configurations, where spin plays a vital role. The induction of a spin pattern is innate for any chemical bonding, in as much as chemical bonds are essentially stable electron configurations through spin alignment. So, it might as well be claimed that chemical bonds form an ontological basis for Consciousness. Moreover, since even single celled organisms like paramecium can be anesthetized, anesthesia may not be an ordinary physical (physiologic) phenomenon.

Stuart Hameroff (Hamerof and Penrose 2003, Hameroff 2006) dealing with anesthesia to understand consciousness, considers loss of consciousness the essential component of general anesthesia, ensuring amnesia (though not necessarily immobility). He raised the issue of whether classical physics or quantum correlations can account for coherent γ synchrony which he claims is the best measurable neural correlate of consciousness. Understanding the mechanism of action of anesthetic agents may answer scientific and philosophical questions regarding consciousness, and vice versa. Consciousness correlates with γ-synchronized conformational activities of neuronal dendritic proteins in cortex and other brain regions (p.410). "Some collective field effect must be at play, and electromagnetic field-mediated synchrony is untenable. Several experts conclude that a type of quantum field mediates γ-synchrony and consciousness" (p.401). Stuart Hameroff posits: "The transition from unconscious processes to consciousness is a key question. Most authorities agree that only a small fraction of the brain's 100 billion or so neurons manifests the NCC at any one time, although many more are active" (p.402).

However, neither the relationship of awareness to the γ-synchronized neural activity, nor the mechanism of γ-electroencephalographic synchrony itself has been explained or verified. Quantum coherence of ordinary particle waves in warm brains is also problematic. Hameroff (2006) suggests that "either a global workspace model of a dynamic, functional architecture for the Neuronal Correlates of Consciousness exists, or consciousness may apparently localize in neural networks of specific brain areas, by virtue of perhaps a type of collective quantum field effect that mediates the γ-synchrony and consciousness (p.401)'. He speculates that the cellular microtubules, considered as bio-resonators, provide the space for this effect.

However, spin, neural networks, and tubulins are not unique to humans only. If spins are psychic pixels, the importunate question of why only in the living matter the electron spin is so inimitably active and that too differentially in different taxa, remains unanswered. The whole universe must be mental, since spin is ubiquitous. Panpsychism becomes an essential trait of subatomic particles, which is not empirically established. Also, if consciousness depends on quantum coherence, the conscious process itself is self-destructive since observation entails perturbation and decoherence. Moreover, despite recurrent changes in electron configurations (chemical structures), and the constant recycling of the subatomic particles in the central nervous system (CNS) as well as the whole body, the diverse sensory stimulus-response activities and messaging by distinct neuron populations of the CNS remain coherent. Self is preserved though the mind's substrate is replaced by the perfect equivalents of its functional units. The associations between different elements of each specific event are stored in tact and coherently recalled due to memory binding.

The unity of consciousness (binding) is maintained in this ordered chaos by the distributed activities of the central nervous system. Dedicated sets of different neurons presumably process or cause the motley medley of perceptual experiences- visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, tactile, pain etc and mental processes. If a homunculus, aghost in the machine, does not operate the remote control of the superbly integrated internal monitor to give a unified modality of experience, an infinite regress will result.

Different clusters of neurons have been suggested as location where the integration (binding) occurs. Also microtubules and the red blood cells were also suggested. Thiele and Stoner (2003) found that perceptual binding of two moving patterns had no effect on synchronization of the neurons responding to the two patterns. How the subjective awareness of the inner 'virtual reality' screen emerges, regardless of which objective neural correlates relate to the binding process, remains the unsolvable hard problem.

The data of Hu and Wu (2006) offers an alternative biophoton messaging phenomenon as a common denominator for consciousness and anesthesia. The findings of Popp (1979) and Popp et al (1979, 1981, 1988a, 1988b, 2002) with magnetic pulses suggest that the anesthetic effect (information) of the agent may have been carried by biophotons to the brain cells. The magnetic pulses produce very stable and coherent, but Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) radiations (biophotons). Popp and co-workers has shown that cells receive, store, and emit biophotons. Valerie G. Petuchov (1983) reported biophoton emission in UV-region ("Biochemiluminescence" in Rus.1983), and attempted to relate this to low mass vacuum particles. There is strong evidence that the phenomena is observed across the taxonomic continuum,with plant cells yielding the highest intensity of biophotons. Electrons also absorb and emit photons. Living cells are electron rich, especially the DNA, and form a storage house for biophotons. Possibly, the frequencies of each biophoton activate specific gene-sequencing through resonance, and induce responses in other biophotons. These are both intra and inter cellular processes, covering the entire organism. Cells may communicate and transmit frequency information from one cell to another through biophotons. Another source of these biophotons may be a union of Dark Matter with fermions.

Syed Ameen (2003) postulated that some components of dark matter may have unique affinity to form an instantaneous "Forced Bosonic Union" with charged Particles, despite the fact that dark matter particles do not interact with most of ordinary matter.

They forge this union upon each other at the expense of the energy of the dark matter, imparting to the union the specific characteristic frequencies of biophotons. The cause of biophoton emission may involve an ordinary and dark matter interphase. Since electron has a spin 1/2 and is fermionic and Photon has a spin1, and is Bosonic, a new transformation is established yielding a two particle entangled quantum state which releases photons. Dark Matter Axions are predicted to change to photons in the presence of strong magnetic fields. The Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) by Duffy et al., (2006) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, searches for axions by converting them to radiant energy in a magnetic field. The process is enhanced using a tunable resonant cavity scanning the 460-810 MHz range, as determined by the predicted mass of the axion.

Wagner (1999) has theorized that the source of biophotons in plants is a universal dark matter component. This could be axion type particles of (Wayne Hu et al, 2000).

The axions form Bose Eistein Condensate (BSC) at ambient temperature and obey quantum laws and can form a frequency and wavelength descriptions that can replace the position and time descriptions of atom displacements. This switch can lead to new insights about the dynamics of bio-processes. By means of these wave dynamics, the DNA can control the active transport system of cell membranes and orchestrate the functional integration of cellular processes. Perturbing factors that disrupt the temporal parameters governing the generation or propagation of the waves, function as sources of stress in the system and modifies the information exchange with the molecular environment.

In view of the accumulated Biophoton data now available, some common notions need be re-examined:

1. All living matter is made of luminous quantum particles

2. Living matter of all species have very similar genome

3. However, taxonomic differences are too vast.

4. Certain living matter possess unique mental phenomena, differing

greatly from species to species.

Some have argued that present Quantum Theory which has been incredibly

successful in the physical realm is incomplete so as to explain mental phenomena. A more reasonable position, is to consider that assumption 1 above may be incomplete, not Quantum Theory itself. Entangled to electrons, protons and neutrons respectively, there could be three other physical, but non-luminous (non-detectable) Dark particles.

These dark particles are most likely the different theoretical axions derived by Hu et al (2000). Refined calculations set the axion mass between 10-6 to 10-3 electronvolts (of the order of about 10-38 grams). Kim (1999) reports at least two different kinds of axions.

Then, taxonomic differences including differential biophoton emission may be due to basic structural differences not easily observable by EM tools. Popp (1970) and Popp et al (2002) demonstrated forcefully that low-level light emissions are a common property of all living cells. It has different intensities for plant or animal cells, for different cell types, and it can vary from one moment to the next. It is not regular, but comes often as "photon explosion" (spikes), especially when the cells are irritated by outside means. Plants may have a type of dark-matter particles parallel to electrons only; animals may have a second category of additional particles parallel to protons also. Human cells may have a third kind of additional particles parallel to neutrons as well.

These Dark particles will be bound with different strength to electrons, protons and neutrons. The strongest binding will be in human cells since all the three dark particles are involved, weaker in animal cells with two different kinds dark particles and weakest in plants having only one kind of dark particles. Gravitons may also be involved, so also spins as in ordinary atoms and molecules, possibly leading to Dark Chemistry parallel to the ordinary Chemistry (Noetic Journal Vol 4, # 4 pp 351-359.

http://noeticcenter.tripod.com). In humans the three axion particles may configure to form an axion body parallel to the visible body. Biophoton emission may be related to Taxonomy, with a predictable ratio of intensities for the different taxa depending on the strength of binding between the dark and visible particles in each taxon.

The axion body will be a holographic matter-field permeating the ordinary particles of matter under the regulatory influences of DNA information. Sensory signals can transduce information on to this field and extract structural information from it, very similar to a robot receiving structural information from a video image via internal codes and. external sensors. Consciousness then will be similar to interference patterns etched on a holographic plate, rather than an encoded volumetric image. Theoretically, this pattern can have an exact spatial location. Spatial structures of

consciousness are then real, not mere potentialities in nonphysical forms. The resonances involving both visible and invisible cells as well as the quantum entanglements of particles, at the location they occupy in physical space, may form the substrate for consciousness. Resonance is recognition. Benford (2001) associates Popps findings with precognition.

The axion body is the observer and the visible body the performer. The spatial image we subjectively experience is no more a mystical entity beyond the scope of science.

Biophotons may have as its source the binding energy between the Dark and Visible particles (Ameen, 2003). This energy may exponentially increase with the number of different particles participating. As the stability increases, the ability of cells to emit biophotons decreases. Then there should be a taxonomic difference in biophoton emission. When normalized, the ratio of intensities in plant, animal and human cells may be (1). 1:2:3 least likely; or (II).3:2:1, more likely; or (III).33:22:1 (9:4:1), most likely.

Qualitative results published so far seems to show that plant cells emit about 9 times more than human cells. The instant increase of intensity observed at the moment of cell death (in cell cultures) points to decoupling effects at the interphase of the dark and visible matter in the living cells. If standardized steps are carefully incorporated for experiments already under way, a more systematic and quantitative analysis may bepossible.

Benford (2001) attributes paranormal cause and effect relationship to biophotons. More precisely, an invisible axion body, which may very well be the cause of biophotons, can remain energetic even after temporary decoupling from the visible body by sleep, anesthesia, hypnosis; near-death experiences etc or even survive death of the visible body. This may also provide a psycho-physical mechanism for the numerous scientific data reported on some kind of "psi" factor in humans.

ConclusionNeurology would explain all psychological phenomena in terms of corresponding neural correlates or physiological substrates. Computer models of the brain have no physical regulatory registers that integrate perceptual experiences. Quantum system of coherent superposed states cannot be the external observer, as observation self-destructs coherence by concomitant perturbation. All these and other quantum parameters such

as spin are universal, while discernible mental phenomena are not. A homunculus seems necessary to provide an adequate ontological substrate for mind, to avoid an integration of infinite regress. An invisible Axion body in hypostatic indistinguishable union with the visible human body may be the locus of sentience/conscience. It supervenes and permeates an otherwise lifeless complex edifice of material structures made of ordinary fermions (electrons, protons and neutrons). Coupling can involve spin-spin and/or graviton interactions. It must be physicality other than the ordinary quantum levels of life.

Living organisms may have three different kinds of axions, each corresponding and coupled to electrons, protons and neutrons respectively of an organism with differing coupling strength. This accounts for the taxonomic differences including differences in intensities of biophoton emission, in spite of genetic similarities. This dark body being made of non-electric particles is intransient, offering the possibility that a permanent pattern of life can exist. The axion body is virtually a hologram integrating the patterns of information at various levels. There is a dynamic biophoton process of kindling and quenching the "potential" of this pattern, besides the resonance between the dark and visible bodies of an organism. Resonance between two structures is recognition of each other, the basis of self-awareness. This may also provide a logical physical mechanism for the numerous scientific data reported on some kind of "psi" factor in humans and justify the timeless belief in an ethereal spiritual body or synonymously a physical mind.

References

Ameen, Syed 2003: The Rediscovery of Photons and Dark Matter, Proceedings of the SPIE conference in San Jose, California, USA,on Jan.25 -31

Benford, M. Sue., Can a theory derived from recent experimental data explain precognition and other mysterious spiritual phenomena? The Journal of Religion and Psychical Research, July 2001, 24(3):132-141.

http://www.homestead.com/newvistas/PrecognitionArt.html

Duffy, L. D., P. Sikivie, D. B. Tanner, S. J. Asztalos, C. Hagmann, D. Kinion, L. J Rosenberg, K. van Bibber, D. B. Yu, R. F. Bradley. 2006: A High Resolution Search for Dark-Matter Axions, Phys. Rev. D 74, 012006.

Gurwitsch, A.G, 1922: "Über Ursachen der Zellteilung". Arch. Entw. Mech. Org. 51 383-415.

A.G. Gurwitsch. 1926: Das Problem der Zellteilung (The Problem of Cell Division), 1926.

Hameroff, Stuart, 2006: The Entwined Mysteries of Anesthesia and Consciousness: Is There aCommon Underlying Mechanism?, Anesthesiology, 105,  pp. 400-412

Ho, M..W. 1993: The rainbow and the worm: the physics of organisms, 1st edn. World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore

Hu, Wayne., Rennan Barkana and Andrei Gruzinov 2000: Phys. Rev. Letters, 85, 1158 astro-ph/0003365

Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu. 2006: Evidence of Non-local Physical, Chemical and Biological Effects Supports Quantum Brain. NeuroQuantology, Vol 4, No 4

Kim, J.E., ``Axion Theory Review'', in Spooner, N.J.C., and Krudryavtsev, V., eds., Proc. of 2nd Workshop on The Identification of Dark Matter, 248-260, World Scientific, Singapore, 1999.

Petuchov, Valerie.G (1983), reported biophoton emission in UV-region, Biochemiluminescence in Russian.1983

Popp, F.A., Yan, Yu: Delayed Luminescence of Biological Systems in Terms of Coherent States. Physics Letters A 293 (2002), 93-97.

Popp, F.A., Yan, Yu: Radiofrequency and microwave radiation of biological origin - their possible role in biocommunication. Psychoenergetic Systems, Vol.3 (1979), pp.133-154.

Popp, F. A., KH Li, WP Mei, M Galle and R Neurohr. Physical aspects of biophotons.

Experientia 44, 576-586. 1988a.

Popp, F.A., Gurwitsch, A.A., Inaba, H., Slawinski, J., Cilento G., van Wijk, R., Chwirot B., and Nagl, W: Biophoton Emission (Review), Experientia. 1988b: 44, 543-600.

Popp, F.A., Ruth, B., Bahr, W., Böhm, J., Grass, P., Grolig, G., Rattemeyer, M., Schmidt, H.G., and Wulle, P.:Emission of visible and ultraviolet radiation by active biological systems. Collective Phenomena (Gordon&Breach), Vol.3 (1981), pp.187-214.

Popp, F. A. 1979. "Photon Storage in Biological Systems," Electromagnetic Bio-Information.

V.P. Kaznacheyev et al. 1976. "Distant Intercellular Interactions in a System of Two Tissue Cultures,"Psychoenergetic Systems, Vol. 1, No. 3, March 1976, pp 141-142.

Rietdijk, C.W. 1979. Found. Phy., 7(5-6), Jun. 77, p. 351. Popp, "Photon Storage in Biological Systems," Electromagnetic Bio-Information.

Stapp, Henry. 1995. PSYCHE, 2(5), May 1995 http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au/v2/psyche-2-05-stapp.html

Thiele, A., & Stoner, G. 2003. Neuronal synchrony does not correlate with motion coherence in cortical area MT. Nature 421:366-70.

Wagner, O.E.1999. Waves in dark matter. Physics Essays, 12(1), 3-10.

Hu H and Wu M. 2004 Action potential modulation of neural spin networks suggests possible role of spin in memory and consciousness. NeuroQuantology vol 5, # 2:309-317.                                             _________________________

Dark Matter and Dark Chemistry

Philip Benjamin, PhD

 

Abstract

 

Dark Chemistry is a discreet attempt to formulate for humans a plausible

dark body parallel to the visible body. It is not an attempt to establish

either the existence or origin of dark matter. Nothing new is added to the

plethora of known and unknown particles or forces. Only, profusely available

current data on axions and bonding mechanisms are used to explore this

prospect.

Key Words: dark chemistry, dark matter, spin pixel, spin-mediated

consciousness theory

NeuroQuantology 2007; Vol 5, #3: 322-326

A Minimalist Method

A Minimalist Method Huping Hu and Maoxin

Wu (2007) commend Benjamin (2003; 2007)

for taking the study of consciousness to where

no one has ever gone before, but lament that

"dark chemistry" model involves too many

hypothetical and/or exotic entities Is that

germane? In this paper, I have tried to present

(in proportionate lay lingo) the logic of an

argument for Dark Chemistry in its essential

terms, shaving it to its simplest provisos-

axions.

 

Hu and Wu (2006; 2007) theorize that

consciousness and its unity spontaneously arise

from the joint quantum dynamics of the

collapses of entangled quantum states of

nuclear spin ensembles ("NSE")-

the"protopsychic" spins or the "mind-pixels".

They suggest that everything "dark" in Benjamin

(2007) paper can be replaced with "non-local

effects" mediated by spin, and present a two-fold

disputation over Dark Chemistry. They

contend that if dark matter is the likely

cosmological manifestation of quantum

entanglement, then the axion dark matter is

replaceable by non-local effects mediated by1

hypothetical primordial spin processes, else

Dark Chemistry is convoluted. This is an if-then-

else logical fallacy, trying to affirm the

consequent of one's pick. The argument seems

to be that proto-psychic primordial spin is an

ontological sine qua non and axion being a

product of its non local effects need not be

considered as a separate entity. That is a red

herring. A discreet intent of Dark Chemistry

(Benjamin, 2007) was to seminally explore the

possibility of perhaps spin mediated axion

bonds similar to electron bonds, none any to

establish the certainty or origin of axions.

Just as pre-spacetime, non-local effect,

non-local chemistry, proactive spins, mind-pixel,

self-referential spin, psychic spin, lynchpin,

nuclear spin, electron spin, all refer to one

entity "spins" (Hu and Wu, 2006; 2007), so also

what Hu and Wu casuistically catalog as dark

chemistry, dark particle, invisible body, non-electric

particle, axion body, all refer to one

entity "axions." Occam's Razor need not be

sharpened here. Entities are not multiplied

beyond the stated basic need of formulating an

invisible parallel body.

Should an invisible body exist is a time

honored question for all ages, including the

13th century Franciscan Monk and

mathematician philosopher William of Occam. If

Dark Matter offers a plausible answer, Dark Chemistry parallel to ordinary chemistry is a

reasonable channel for that. That requires a

minimum of three particles parallel to the three

known ordinary particles in a visible body. The

problem before a presumed Dark Chemistry is

to conjecture some new exotic particles and

parry Occam, or accept the copious data

already available on dark matter. Charge-less

(non-electric) axion particles are reported to

be of wide range in mass (though of negligible

order). Their existence is increasingly becoming

indisputable on the grounds of string-theory,

astrophysics, empirical data and tenable ongoing

experiments. They are profusely discussed in

multiplied publications too numerous to cite

here. Thus Dark Chemistry as proposed by

Benjamin (2007) is a minimalist approach for

the necessity of exploring an uncharted realm,

in full compliance with Occam: "Pluralitas non

est ponenda sine neccesitate" or "plurality

should not be posited without necessity." Here

the necessity was to "create" an invisible body

that is a noumenal reality, not a nominal

epiphenomeon.

 

Bonding and Interaction of Particles

Why do matter particles interact at all? It is still

a fiddly question that beset science. The puzzle

is that things interact without touching! At the

macro level, there is action (gravity) at a

distance, even galaxies apart, without contact.

The sun attracts the earth and the other

planets. Two magnets (substances with a

certain precise alignments of electron

configurations) attract or repel as if they

"sense" each other's presence. All that is

available here is substance. Calling these forces

as "gravity" and "magnetism," is begging the

question. Gravity does not vanish when mass

turns to energy. In fact, gravitation does not

depend directly on mass, it acts through the

energy (and momentum) of the matter

involved. If the matter changes in some way to

reduce its rest mass, this would have no long

range effect on the gravitational field, because

there is no net change in energy of the

gravitating matter. It is generally the total

energy (rest energy plus kinetic energy etc.)

that is important for gravity, whether the

particle in question has a rest mass or not.

Gravity bends light rays (beams of photons). It

acts on everything, including space itself! What

causes it is simply unknown. Quantum gravity is

yet another mystery. So is dark energy. Physics

does not know what these forces are. It can

only say that at the fundamental level, a force is

a thing which is passed between two particles.

Winkler et al., (2006), report that atom

pairs can also bind together even when the

forces are repulsive, rather than attractive. This

basically alters the molecular concept.

Intuitively, a bound system of atoms implies an

attractive force between them. However, to

reach an equilibrium configuration, a repulsive

force must balance the attraction. Otherwise

the system would easily collapse. In the

quantum world, attraction is not even needed

to form a stable bound system. Repulsion can

also effect a stable binding in the presence of a

periodic spatial perturbation, where the energy

cannot vary continuously, but is restricted to

specific values. In order to conserve energy,

repulsion between a pair of particles can lead to

stable binding, if non-binding would lead the

two isolated atoms to have energies not

permissible (Fallani et al., 2006).

Substance reality in the ordinary

material world is evidenced by a continuum of

relational interactions. For this, chemical bonds

are crucial in the formation of complex bio-molecules

and all entities beyond the atomic

structure. At the micro level, protons are held

together with enormously strong nuclear forces

within the submicroscopic nucleus, though like

charges must repel on contact. Indeed they do

repel outside the nuclear potential well. At the

atomic and molecular level, electrons are held

together in pairs in their orbitals around the

nucleus, though we expect them to strongly

repel each other. Electric charges alone cannot

account for chemical bonding, stable electron

configurations (periodicity of elements) is also a

key factor. Mendeleev's chemical periodicity of

elements, a law of nature, is not defined by a

simple numerical relationship, or nomological

formulae. Chemists attribute stability of atoms

and molecules to duet and octet electron

configurations, extrapolated from the empirical

stability of the noble gases. Generally, atoms

with incomplete outer electron shells are

reactive. They contribute or share electrons

between them to achieve the stable duet or

octet configurations.

 

Quantum Mechanics is not in conflict

with the chemical model of a molecule as a rigid

structure of nuclei held together by shared

electrons. The electron shells are only the

quantum energy levels of electrons within each

atom. The distribution of electrons within an

energy level forms the electron clouds, or the

atomic orbitals. An atomic orbital has a

determined form and orientation, and can

maximally contain two electrons, each in a

different spin state, up or down. These two

electron waves 'mix' in a way that yields the

lowest energy. The atom itself strives for a

totally saturated outer octet or duet shell,

because this is a very stable state (inert Noble

gas configurations). Quantum chemistry gives

an almost full account of how atoms combine into

molecules (and molecular ions). The theorem is 

only an approximation due to special quantum

effects, particularly in excited states, for instance

vibrational coupling that involves

transitions between two structures.

Energy states and electron configuration

determine the way atoms can form bonds with

each other resulting in molecular structures.

In reality, it is spatial, temporal and spin

relationships between electrons, each of

which is unaware of itself and

the relationships with each other.

Dark matter also may have analogous spin affinities.

Under suitable external conditions, a

molecular dynamic system consisting of two or

more element-systems results in the creation

of a fundamentally real and stable new unit of

physicality, a new totality. For example, the

dynamic natural law governing two atoms at

certain energy levels can be explained by

quantum chemical determination of the energy

states of atoms and molecules. According to

this law, every free system tends toward the

highest order of stability by striving to reach the

lowest possible energy state. If two negatively

charged electrons from the visible matter can

reach a configurationally stable combination

in a philosophically sound atomic or molecular

orbital, it is not beyond the realm of reason to

postulate a similar atomic and molecular configuration

for axions via spins and possibly gravitons or gravitinos.

Quantum numbers abound in atomic theory.

They represent quantum possibilities of energy

levels that emerge, and could be applicable to the

dark matter also. As in ordinary matter, dark-atoms

will have the principal quantum number n, which

can take the values 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ...n. Each n will

have a principal energy level or a dark shell. Each shell

will have n subshells. Each subshell has one or

more orbitals within it; the s, p, d, f, g subshells

have 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 orbitals respectively. The rules

of placing axion-e within dark shells with nuclei

made of axion-p and axion-n, may form the

Dark Matter Aufbau principle and dark

chemistries, yielding dark molecules, dark cells

and dark bodies. Akin to the lighter ordinary

atomic species, the lower Axion atoms, may

have two main orbitals: the spherical orbitals or

the s-orbital of the lowest energy levels (with

the axion nucleus in the center), the dumbbell-shaped

orbitals or p-orbitals of next higher

energy levels (with the axion nucleus in the

'waist').

 

The rules of molecular structure, the

directed valence bonds for each reactive atomic

element, are natural laws governing conversion

of simpler components into larger complexities.

They could be applicable to axions also. The

major difference is, while the wave-like

properties of ordinary atoms or molecules can

be ignored for most practical purposes, they

are significant for axions, since they have

relatively negligible masses.

Taxonomy, Dark Chemistry and Consciousness

On taxonomic grounds, Benjamin (2003; 2007)

argues that in living matter three different

axions exist parallel to electron, proton and

neutron, respectively. Tentatively, they may be

designated as axion-e, axion-p and axion-n.The

electron/axion-e pairs occur in all taxa.

Additionally, proton/axion-p pairs occur in

animals. Adding to both are neutron/axion-n

pairs occurring only in humans. The axion spin

will have similar role as the fermion spin in the

atomic and molecular structure of ordinary

matter. Positive and negative gravitons or

gravitinos in axions may play the role of

negative and positive charges in ordinary atoms.

Resonance and entanglement between the dark

and light particles has a built-in recognition

faculty for awareness and self-awareness,

respectively.

Due to this differential inclusion of

axions in each taxon, a complete dark structure

that is parallel to the visible structure is absent

in plants. Being less bound, the axion

interaction with the visible matter is the highest

in plants. This could be the reason for the

maximum biophoton emission in live cells of

plants, according to references cited in

Benjamin (2007). In animals, the stability of a

dark body is increased by an order of at least 2,

due to the added proton/axion-p pairs. This

leads to lesser biophoton emission. In humans

the stability of the dark parallel soma is the

highest by an order of 3 at least, resulting from

the triple binding of three different axions,

leading to the highest intensity of biophoton

emission. Presently available data on biophotons

emission from the three taxa, which are rather

qualitative, support this argument.

Standardization and quantitization of biophoton

emission experiments with living cells are

possible and needed.

In this scheme of ontic reality, three

different but integrated factors become

apparent in live humans: 1.A Light Soma

(electric) 2.A parallel Dark Soma (non-electric)

3.A holistic Process (both dark and light).

Unlike the light body, the dark soma is intransient being not fully subject to the laws of entropy. The Process consists of both light and

dark components. When the dark soma

decouples the light body, the light processes

cease to exist, but the dark processes persist

with the dark body.

No part of any living system is

materially constant, except its structural form.

The live cells are continually changing by

growth, decay and replacement of its

component fundamental particles. A steady

state of flux is pervasive for the chemistry of

these structures. Every 40 seconds the actin

filaments in dendrites need replacing (Star et al.,

2002). The NMDA receptors are replaced

every five days (Shimizu et al., 2000). Activity

level controls postsynaptic organization and

signaling via the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

The whole post-synaptic density (PSD) - the

protein packed zone that powers synaptic

activity - is regenerated, molecule by molecule,

almost by the hour (Ehlers, 2003). Though

Myelin and RNA molecules are known to last

months, and DNA is fairly stable, they all

undergo recurrent repairs and systematic

substitution of old constituent particles with

new.

The whole brain is recycled constantly,

about every other month, synapses being the

most active. Only their shapes are maintained.

Their component macro molecules disintegrate

within minutes of their formation, as revealed

by fluorescent tagging. They cannot maintain a

steady identity. The new particles cannot carry

the old information (memories), but systemic

loss of memories or Kaleidoscopic personalities

are not the norm. Evidently, the mind substrate

must be different from any electromagnetic field

associated with the molecules. This molecular

chaos of ordinary living matter, raises the issue

of unity, wholeness, and stability of

consciousness and demands an extraordinary

intransient substrate. A new kind of physical

matter seems lurking in the dark with vague

properties. What could be more appropriate

than the extra ordinary dark matter as this

mind stuff?

Mental states and material states will be

both physical, if they are distinguished as

extraordinary and ordinary material

phenomena. The brain is then a many-particle

system of neurons permeated by their axion

counterparts, at an energy level which directly

correlates with mental activity. Mental activity is

co-produced by the visible brain and the

invisible axion counterpart. It is more likely that

the entire visible body, permeated by an

invisible body of axions is involved in

consciousness. Self-consciousness could be a

product of mutually recognizing resonant

structures. The restrictions of standard

quantum mechanics are not relevant here, since

the axion masses are negligibly small. If mental

states are the primary objects of reference, the

axion model shows explicatory features in a

very subtle and refined manner.

The mental and material manifestations

may inherit mutual correlations due to the fact

that they are jointly caused by the visible body

and the permeating invisible body, con-centering

into a holistic hypostasis. There is the

possibility of a direct causal interaction between

mental and material domains. This scheme can

explain the ubiquitous correlations between

mental states and brain states, better than

ordinary materialism.

 

Conclusion

 

Dark Chemistry could very well be the choice

of the simplest that best fits the facts, among

many theories from 'collapse', 'pilot wave',

'neural-correlates', 'back-action quanta', 'epi-phenomenon',

'explicate-implicate orders',

'psychic spin pixels' to 'many-worlds'. These are

all as the heads of the fabled hydra, insolubly

multi-faceted postulates, and at times tend to

be just fairy tales for adults. As for William of

Occam, his somatic luminous fermions are not

all lost in the oozy meadow of insentient space-time,

if they were ever entangled with charge-less

axions which are not subject to entropy

laws as ordinary matter is. Only his axion soma,

having lost the energy of the visible body, may

be at a very low (possibly negative) energy

state, waiting to be energized from an external

source, either for luminous manifestation or for

reunion with the ex-entangled particle partners.

This is also true for another William, Roger, the

Baptist Minister and founder of Rhode Island

State whose body with casket and all was eaten

up by the roots of an apple tree! The

inadvertent apple-cheeked "cannibals" never

had to be concerned, as long as the axion

theory of a dark soma is correct. Non-local spin

effects by themselves have no such explanatory

powers.

 

References

 

Benjamin P. Mind Matter; Noetic Journal 2003: 4, 351-

359. http://noeticcenter.tripod.com

Benjamin P. Dark Chemistry or Psychic Spin Pixel?

NeuroQuantology 2007;2:197-304.

Beck F, and Eccles J. Quantum aspects of brain activity

and the role of consciousness. Proceedings of the

National Academy of Sciences of the USA

1992;89:11357-11361.

Beck F. Quantum brain dynamics and consciousness. In

The Physical Nature of Consciousness, ed. by P.

van Loocke, Benjamins, Amsterdam, pp. 83-116.

2001.

Ehlers, M.D. Neuroscience. Nature: 2003, 6, 231-242.

Fallani, L and Inguscio, M. Coupling of Mutually

Repulsive Atoms. Nature 2006, 441:820.

Hu H, Wu M. Evidence of Non-local Physical, Chemical

and Biological Effects Supports Quantum Brain.

NeuroQuantology; 2006;4:291-306.

Hu H, Wu M. On Dark Chemistry What's Dark Matter

and How Mind Influences

Brain Through Proactive Spin. NeuroQuantology

2007;5:205-213.

Shimizu E.Y, Tang P, Rampon, C, Tsien JZ. NMDA

Receptors. Science 2000:290:1170.

Star EN, Kwiatkowski DJ & Murthy VN. Rapid

Turnover of Actin in Dendritic Spines and its

Regulation by Activity. Nature Neuroscience;

2002;5:239-246.

Winkler K. et al. Atom Pairs Bound through Repulsion

Nature 2006;441:853-856

_________________________________________________

 

4. DARK CHEMISTRY & PARANORMAL PHENOMENA

 Philip P. Benjamin PhD

Abstract:

Presuming that no part of any exotic ‘dark matter’ has anything to do with the biosphere seems unwarranted now, in view of so many theoretical and experimental work including a recent claim that certain type of axions has been detected. If supersymmetric (SUSY) particles can yield SUSY chemistry, it is conceivable that dark matter atoms made of particles of the category of axions may yield dark chemistry and its products. This will involve ordinary chemical principles as duet, octet configurations, force carrier particles, spin and Pauli Exclusion Principle. The brain is then a many-particle system of neurons permeated by their axion counterparts, at an energy level relevant to mental activity that is co-produced by the visible brain and its invisible axion counterpart. It is likely that the entire visible body may be coupled to and permeated by an invisible body of axions by spin-spin interactions. Self-awareness could be a result of mutually recognizing resonant structures. A differential distribution of the dark particles in plants, animals and humans, and their weak interactions with ordinary matter seems to have experimental support in the differential biophoton emission rates across the taxa. The differential aspects of human mind with respect to animal and plant sentience can be examined as differences in dark matter configurations across the taxa. This can further be linked with experimental evidence of differential rates of biophoton emission in plant, animal and human cells, agreeing with a predicted ratio of 3^3 : 3^2 : 3^1. The  ratio of these rates between plants and humans (27/3 = 9) closely agrees with the reported experimental value of 10. Decoupling of the dark body from the visible body may leave it at a very low, perhaps negative, energy state (- E = mC^2). Though ‘ghost’ phenomena may therefore be unlikely unless this energy is acquired, paranormal phenomena such as ‘channeling’ in living humans may be possible by alien ’dark matter beings’ who are already at a higher energy state.

[The rates of biophoton emission per unit surface area per second will be proportional to 3^3: 3^2 : 3^1 in plants to animals to humans, where the powers 3, 2, 1 refer to the 'number of kinds' of dark matter particles in each taxon, the base 3 refer to the number of light matter particles (electrons, protons & neutrons). So plants should emit 9 times more biophotons than humans. This agrees with the experimentally reported ratio (Popp, F. A. et al. 1979, 1988). Lynne McTaggart (2003) summarizes this in her book “The Field: The Quest for the Secret Force of the Universe.” This is not secret any more, just a dark matter phenomenon].

 
Table of Contents
January 2008
 

1.       MIND  MATTER   NoeticJournal  Vol  4 # 4, 351- 360 (2003)

2.      Dark chemistry or psychic spin pixels?  

          NeuroQuantology, June 2007,  Vol. 5 # 2: 197-204    ISSN 1303 5150        

            www.neuroquantology.com 

3.      Dark Matter & Dark Chemistry            

        NeuroQuantology Vol 5 # 3 (2007)      

4.  Abstract: Dark Chemistry & Paranormal Phenomena

 http://noeticcenter.tripod.com      http://noeticcenter.tripod.com/blog/

Mind Matter                                                                                            Noetic Journal Vol 4 # 4 , 351- 360 (2003)                               

Dark Chemistry or Psychic Spin Pixel?                                                  NeuroQuantology, June 2007; Vol. 5 # 2: 197-204                                          

Dark Matter & Dark Chemistry                                                            NeuroQuantology Vol 5 # 3 (2007).

http://noeticcenter.tripod.com/blog/                                                                        medinuclear@hotmail.com

MIND MATTER      

Philip P. Benjamin, PhD 

Noetic Journal Vol 4 # 4 , 351- 360 (2003)

In loving memory of Ivy Thomas Benjamin, M.D., over four short decades of life together, whose invisible soma awaits to be energized into the full glory of luminosity, and without whom this work would not have come about.

                                                 Abstract

 

Dark matter may be just as real as visible matter, but a subtler form of matter. The physical (and chemical) properties of dark matter are unknown. Devoid of electrical charges, the dark matter permeates the visible matter without being detected. Will charge-less particles form dark atoms? Will they then interact strongly with each other and with ordinary matter? If subtle dark matter chemistries exist, they may yield subtle bodies and may give us a theoretical basis for the subtleties of the mind. Then the possibility exists for dark atom structures and chemistries which are parallel to ordinary structures and chemistries, but undetectable. That sounds like the mind stuff. It is conceivable that the confirmation of a chemically active dark matter will have a greater impact on science in this century than quantum mechanics, information theories, and DNA in the previous century. Mind is admittedly mystifying. It is invisible and undetectable, but is coupled to the physical body, in and through which mind operates. However, a mystery per se need not be metaphysical or mystical.

Keywords: Dark Matter, Mind, Resonance, Spin coupling

1. Mind Matter

Wave function collapse is universal, but complex mental phenomena are unique to humans. So, the mental world must have sources other than wave function collapse. Jung and Pauli (See Meier, 1992) suggested a thought-field with its own elementary particles. Since thoughts are invisible any such field and particles must also be imperceptible. It must be a hidden physical field parallel to that of the ordinary material realm. The dark matter realm may fill the bill.

Present data seem to indicate that ordinary (baryonic) matter constitutes only about ten percent of all matter. Both theoretical physics and cosmological models predict the possibility of existence of certain type of exotic particles (nonbarionic), which are strands of localized energy in space, with very low mass and no charge. Predictions of super-symmetry theory in particle physics, also suggest the existence of vast amount of dark matter (R. Peccei and H. Quinn, 1977). The two major possible candidates for the dark matter, with the amusing acronyms MACHOs and WIMPS, are the Massive Astrophysical Compact Halo Objects (West, 1992) and Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (Griest, 1993; West, 1992). WIMPS are the little weak dark matter candidates, which are thought to be made of exotic stuff, called non-baryonic matter. Astronomers look for MACHOs and particle physicists for WIMPs.2. Dark Matter Realm

Current speculations about the Big Bang do not conclude that all forms of matter began at this event (Trefil J. 1993; Silk, 1989). Dark matter may have been present even before the presumed Big Bang event. Luminous matter is what is claimed to be formed during this singular event.

The microwave background radiation of the universe (the "echo" from the Big Bang) and the red shift which shows an expanding universe are presented as quantitative experimental evidences supporting the hot Big Bang Theory. Both of these phenomena are based on observation of radiation from luminous matter. This does not rule out that some form of "dark matter" may have existed before the Big Bang and the primordial production of atoms. Conceptual bias notwithstanding, dark matter field theories are likely to be developed more systematically within a theoretical framework of a unified field theory, that includes gravitational and electromagnetic fields. Dark matter fields may have been primal phenomena within a physically expanding universe. There are many categories of WIMPs suspected. Various theorists have dubbed some of them supersymmetric particles, photinos, neutralinos, cosmic strings or membranes, preons, quark nuggets, monopoles etc. Microleptons also have been proposed. Another candidate for dark matter is a theoretical non-thermal particle called the axion. This type of matter may fall into the broad category of "dark matter", because it is invisible, and cannot be easily detected being electrically charge-less. Our visible bodies could be permeated by it, without us ever knowing. All the other candidates for dark matter were created in cosmic thermal processes and have thermal velocities, including the thermal axions presently being created in the sun.

However, there are no definitive conclusions about the exact nature, size, shape, mass or form of dark particles, except that they have no electric charge. Being charge-less, dark matter does not interact with electric charge. In the ordinary chemical sense, there is no reason for it to preferentially interact with body physiology, which is charge dependent. So, chemists have not looked into the possibilities of extra-ordinary chemistries, though extra ordinary matter has been known to physics since the 1930’’s as a necessary ingredient of the cosmos. Mass estimates of dark matter range from tiny subatomic particles weighing 100,000 times less than an electron to black holes with masses millions of times that of the sun (Mateo, 1994). In order to accurately describe the structure of dwarf galaxies, Wayne Hu et al (2000) assumed an arbitrary mass of 10-22 electron volt. He claims this is reasonable, since the mass of dark matter particles is an unknown, adjustable parameter. Its quantum mechanical, or de Broglie wavelength (non-thermal) would then be a few thousand light-years, large enough to span the whole galactic core, which automatically spread out the mass from the centers of dwarf galaxies and match observations more closely. This is called "fuzzy cold dark matter". Such particles would form a colossal Bose-Einstein condensate in and around every galaxy, a state known to exist only for ultra cold atoms in laboratories. If the mass of an axion is about one billionth of an electron mass, the axion wave extends well beyond the earth. Then it is plausible that the axion matter must be a BEC from ambient to perhaps even to solar temperatures. In the ordinary physical world of electrons and protons, BECs can exist only at ultra cold temperatures, but the extraordinary world of axions may have this intrinsic property at all temperatures, satisfying the zero-point temperature requirement for a BEC. This is of significance for information theories and processes, and hence for the invisible mind. A conceptual leap from the invisible matter to invisible mind is appealing. Axion Atoms

Presently it is assumed that axions exist apart from ordinary matter and interact very weakly with it. If a symmetry breaking process produced cosmic axions before matter and anti-matter recombined, the number of axions will be comparable to the number of photons in the universe. It is estimated that there must be more than 10 trillion axions for each proton and neutron in the cosmos, making them a major part of dark matter. Physicist John Cramer ("http://mist.npl.washington.edu/av/altvw05.html) claims that axions are geometrically similar to an electric and a magnetic field oriented parallel to each other, so that intense electric and/or magnetic fields can theoretically transform axions into photons of all energies including microwaves. Axions of Wayne Hu et al (2000) have a mass of 10-22 electron volt, with non-thermal de Broglie wavelength of a few thousand light-years spanning the galaxies. An axion of 1 eV = 17.83 x 10-31 gm i.e. about one- tenth of a million-trillion-trillionth of a gram, has thermal de Broglie wavelength of about 12.0 x 10-10m (or 12 Angstrom units, A). The average optical wavelength is about 6000 x 10-10m, i.e. 6000 Angstrom units; the average atomic wavelength at ambient conditions is about 0.166 x 10-10m, about 36,000 times lesser. The smallest atom is about 1 Angstrom in diameter. The mass of choice for axion will be such that it isomorphously permeates each subatomic particle.

It is inane to think that such dark matter are afloat carrying information and solving the mind-body problem. It is not free floating subatomic particles, but a structured configuration that constitute ordinary matter. So also, corresponding structured configurations of dark atomic particles of very low mass and capable of dark chemistry seem to be an interesting prospect. Toward that goal, the following assumptions are made:

1. Axions of very low mass are confined to the dimensions of ordinary subatomic particles. They occupy the same space that the fundamental particles occupy, but with masses several orders less than one electron volt.

2. They will permeate the visible particles and atoms in an isomorphic manner, and become indistinguishable from the latter.

3. They may form axion atoms possessing bonding properties, through spins and configurations of constituent units.

4. Specific axion dark atom exists corresponding to each known ordinary atom. This relationship will be similar to that between objects and their signs.

5. Certain elemental relations exist which govern the axions such as spin, gravity (exchange of gravitons), resonance, entanglement or an yet to be determined bonding force.

6. Coupling of these dark atoms to the ordinary atoms is possible.

7. Associated with every axion particle is an undetectable charge "C" that can be plus or minus similar to electrical.

A hydrogen atom may have a dark counterpart existing parallel to it. Its one proton and one electron (and no neutron) may each have its shadow axion form condensed within its dimensions and permeating it. Similarly all known atoms will have their protons, neutrons and electrons isomorphously suffused by their shadow axion forms. For dark chemistries to occur, these are confined to the ordinary atomic dimensions, with their wavelengths condensed to those of ordinary atoms. If these axions must interact with physical energy and be coupled to physical particles, that should be through mechanisms that are logical and relevant to the physical realm. In the visible realm of ordinary (baryonic) particles, electric charge is the bonding force between them. No such charge exists in the extraordinary non-baryonic matter. However there are such physical forces as spin, gravity (graviton exchange), resonance, entanglement or an as yet undetermined force, which may bond these dark particles together and or bind them to the visible particles. [There are many non-falsifiable theories afloat such as axion fields, spin fields, microleptonic fields, heterogeneous physical vacuum, torsion fields etc]. Then, such invisible axion bodies may form the substrate extraordinaire for the mental realm.

Dark chemistries parallel to and coupled to ordinary chemistries, will involve electrically charge-less components of dark matter atoms and their reactions through some kind of bonding. Spins and configurations of electrons lead to chemical bonding in ordinary matter. Same phenomena may occur in these axion atoms also. It could be through an intrinsic angular momentum (spin) with clockwise and anticlockwise directions (positive and negative signs). Then spin-spin coupling between dark particles may facilitate dark chemistries parallel to normal chemistries. The spin-charge coupling of dark and ordinary matter may lead to coupling of the ordinary subatomic particles to their dark counterparts. In addition, there is the possibility of resonance, entanglement and graviton exchange, which may be facilitating factors for interactions that lead to possible dark atom chemistries occurring parallel to ordinary chemistries.

This may lead to a dichotomy or even trichotomy of physical entities (made of both visible and dark atoms), depending on how one wants to look at this complex hierarchy. The dichotomy will be made of ordinary matter and processes coupled to dark matter and dark processes. That will be a diune structure of ordinary matter and dark energy states. The trichotomy will be triune hierarchical states of ordinary matter, dark matter and energy processes. In other words, the trichotomy will consist of ordinary physicality, extraordinary physicality, and energy processes (both dark and visible). Interactions of Dark Matter Axions can be as Bose-Einstein-Condensate (BEC), which pervade all matter, from ambient to solar environment. However, we are interested only in axions that are confined or condensed within baryonic particles. As already stated, different axion atoms with different but negligible mass, and zero electric charge, may be held together by a binding force other than electromagnetic. The binding force may result from spin, resonance, gravity, entanglement or an as yet unknown force. Then we need to consider:

1. Dark atomic structures similar to those of the ordinary atoms.

2. Bonding between dark atoms, through spin and configurations as in ordinary matter.

3. Coupling of dark atoms to the ordinary atoms.

The first two aspects have to address the prospects of electrically charge-less components of dark matter atoms, and their reactions through some kind of bonding. Spin and configuration, entanglement [coupling of the two such that the state of the one determines the state of the other] or an yet to be determined force, may be involved. The asymmetries of structure or forms may also be pertinent factors here. The third question of dark matter coupling to ordinary matter may involve resonance and gravity (exchange of gravitons).

If dark atom chemistries are plausible, a hierarchy of products may exist, from dark molecules, genes, cells gametes, and organs to dark organisms, covering all stages of the development of life. These will exist parallel to and isomorphously permeating their visible counterparts. Thus, a dark soma may exist coupled to the visible body and parallel to it. These doubles of luminous atoms coupled to their dark matter forms produce the doubles of atoms, molecules, cells, organs and organisms. The dark forms exist in parallel to the corresponding luminous (ordinary) structures. For example, the ordinary DNA is suffused with an information loaded dark DNA. The genetic code and information on the dark DNA’s may also have phylogenic specificities. From the zygote to the total human body, all constituents made of ordinary matter are permeated by their axion counterparts. Spin Coupling

f the charge-less shadow particles possess an intrinsic angular momentum (spin) with clockwise and anticlockwise directions (positive and negative signs), spin-spin coupling between dark particles may facilitate dark chemistries parallel to normal chemistries. Instead of, or in addition to, spin-spin coupling, there is the possibility of resonance, entanglement and exchange of gravitons. The spin-charge coupling of dark and ordinary matter may lead to coupling of the shadow particles to the subatomic particles.

Evidence seems to be mounting for a positive answer to the question regarding the relationship of the axions to the ordinary matter. It is difficult to conceive of a kind of matter that interacts gravitationally with ordinary matter in the normal way and yet fails to distribute itself in the same geometric formation as that of normal matter. If dark matter is governed by conventional gravity, its distribution will be the same as normal matter. However, it interacts with itself differently from how ordinary matter does with other ordinary matter. Perhaps, spin, entanglement and resonance and quantum properties may play their roles in dark atom interactions.

Existence of spin-coupling forces remains open. Any coupling relation existing between luminous and dark matter in a galaxy cluster core should in principle shed light on the physical properties of dark matter relative to the visible mater and perhaps on the nature of dark matter itself. In two recent papers, Giraud (1998) showed that the observed kinematics of disk rotating systems are consistent with a coupling relation between the visible (stars + gas) and dark mass distributions. One force that does act on both is gravity, which means we should be able to detect this effect. There is also the possibility of spin-charge coupling between dark and ordinary particles and spin-spin coupling between dark particles. Quantum Coupling

In quantum mechanics, coherence coupling involves objects being in more than one state at the same time. This uncanny concept known as superposition makes instantaneous interaction between objects possible. Quantum computing is an ingenious method of computation that tries to use quantum coupling to carry out logical operations and develop quantum computers. Spin-spin coupling in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is an example of quantum coupling where the states of two particles are shared. Quantum coupling is being used to develop quantum computers at IBM. Since such coupling can take place over long distances by the process of entanglement, the coupling is said to be simultaneous. Regardless of whether quantum coupling is really simultaneous or just so fast that it seems simultaneous to us, it is a highly reliable and predictable phenomenon. It is vital to life and makes nanotechnology possible. According to the second law of thermodynamics, no coupling can be 100% efficient in a physical system. However, muscles and brains have molecular motors known as actomyosin complexes which couple energy from ATP into mechanical motion with nearly 100% thermodynamic efficiency. Resonance Coupling

Structural resonance contributes to the stability of many molecules or ions. A classical example is the hexagonal benzene molecule with alternate single and double bonds (chemical). This is very common in chemical states, especially organic chemistry where different electronic configurations of the same compound contribute to its extra ordinary stability. Benzene molecule is a well-known example. Usually reality is best represented by a hybrid structure of the resonance entity. Resonance between different electronic configurations strengthens the bonding between adjacent atoms and distributes charge over a greater number of atoms. The hybrid becomes more stable than any individual resonance structure. Here, resonance means stability. (Riordan, p. 213, also: Silk, p. 125).

An analogy with Phonon-Photon coupling may be relevant. In solid-state physics, a phonon is a quantum of lattice vibrational energy. In analogy to a photon (a quantum of light) in electromagnetism, the phonon can be viewed as a wave packet with particle-like properties. Its behavior characteristics determine or affect various properties of solids. When photons and phonons interact in semiconductors used in communications systems, undesirable system behavior can occur (Weik 1989). The energy of a phonon is usually less than 0.1 eV (electron volt) and thus is one or two orders of magnitude less than that of a photon. [See the American National Standard Dictionary for Information Technology (ANSDIT), ANSI X3.197-1996, and the draft of the Millennial Edition of ANSDIT 2000]. Matter + mechanical energy = matter + photon emission + phonon emission.

The classical mechanical excitation has a continuous character, but the response energy (photons) is quantified. That is, the mechanical energy is concentrated from the macroscopic and continuous distribution to the local quantum distribution in the atomic scale. In the absorption-emission reactions in solids by mechanical action, the energy transformation occurs from continuous into the quantum states. Likewise, the continuous phonon energy is coupled to the discontinuous light energy. A similar process may exist between the dark and the luminous bodies (and processes). There will be individual differences in these resonance processes.

Resonance may be esoteric, but not metaphysical or mystical. At the quantum level there may be a unified field resonating to intensify, through sympathetic vibration, the interactions necessary for any contextual event or phenomenological moment. Such resonance innately possess complementary aspects of existence and experience such as "conscious and unconscious, voluntary and automatic, nurture and nature, wave and particle, time and space (Keener, 1999). It is a contrasting continuum of complementary characteristics. Holistic self-organization is possible. The luminous body particles may resonate recursively with its shadow self. There may be an explicit quantitative and an implicit qualitative aspect of this dark-luminous particle resonance, at the quantum level.Extraordinary Chemistry

With the development of Quantum Mechanics, the atom is no longer considered a solid indivisible mass of particle that cannot interpenetrate other atoms, as was assumed by Dalton, the English chemist and school teacher who developed the atomic theory over one hundred years ago. Only, it does have a solid appearance due to interactions of the electric field. Absence of electric charge in dark matter raises questions about its combining capacity. Some force other than electromagnetic must bind the axion atoms. They could then form a hierarchy of atoms, molecules, compounds, cells etc. which will invisibly penetrate the corresponding visible entities. These dark atoms could interact with each other by their own individual binding force, much like ordinary atoms interact mutually through their electromagnetic binding force.

It must be noted that the electric charge is a property of the luminous matter, not a thing in itself. So is spin. When charged bodies interact, that interaction is between properties. We know the role that spins play in chemical interactions. Besides, there may be other charge-equivalent properties enabling charge-less dark matter to interact and lead to dark chemistries and dark physiology at the cellular level. Graviton-exchange, resonance, spin, entanglement or an as yet unknown force may enable them to interact between themselves, couple to and resonate with the ordinary physical world. Surprisingly, modern chemistry somehow has so far omitted dark matter for any such considerations.

If these atoms interact with each other through their own distinct binding force, that may lead to subtle chemistries and subtle bodies. Subtle bodies made up of different types of invisible matter, could be a venue to shift the problem of consciousness. This would suggest that mind may be invisible, but superbly physical, of an exotic form, a spiritual body (1Corinthians 15:44). [This is no justification for those who see their double. Most probably that is a result of chemical imbalance or malformations in the brain! Do not attribute this to dark matter]. The Axions of Mind: Microleptons

As stated already, the axions may exist as both local and cosmic BEC. Eminent Russian researchers posit the idea of an universal lepton gas, having several levels of particle masses between 10-40 and 10-30 grams, with full information about the material world. Anatoly Okhatrin (1989), a Russian physicist, claims that super weak electromagnetic pulses and clusters of the lightest particles called micro leptons carry visual and audible signals, as well as thoughts and feelings, traveling in space-time at almost the speed of light. Super weak pulses of electromagnetic and micro lepton fields carry them. Visual, audible, and other images, and all thoughts and feelings exist in the form of clusters of super light elementary particles of micro leptons. These are reminiscent of Plato's eidoses (ideas or thoughts) autonomously afloat in the air with no boundaries and Aristotelian forms. Thus, thoughts and feelings are material, according to the micro lepton concept. Expressed in mathematical formulae, every single human thought has a mass of weight varying from 10^-30 to 10^-40 g. It must be emphasized that, these are all unverifiable speculations and irreproducible experiments. However, if confirmed, these will be momentous findings. Even if an axion medium exists that is capable of computation, that by itself cannot explain mind and consciousness. These axions must be in a structured form.

If micro hadrons such as micro protons and micro neutrons made of micro quarks, and also micro leptons such as micro electrons exist, they all will have zero electric charge. Their masses are few orders of magnitude less than 1 eV. For the somatic axions, we assume that they have their wave functions reduced to zero except within the physical bounds of protons, neutrons and electrons. A dark atom is composed of these dark micro particles. These dark atoms may combine to yield dark chemistries. The mediator, in the quantum depiction of this process may be as elusive as graviton. It is not necessary to totally rule out an intrinsic angular momentum or "spin" for these particles, which could be clockwise (+) or counterclockwise (-). These spins may facilitate dark interactions and dark chemistries via bond forming configurations. These processes analogous and parallel to their luminous counterparts. We assume that micro dark atoms could be formed through these forces, much the same way as ordinary atoms, according to rules similar to the Auf-Bau principle of atomic structure. The resonance between the dark and visible bodies offer a new approach to explicate mental phenomena.

Alternatively, the micro proton may have a positive attractive force of +f; the micro-electron may have a negative attractive force of -f. The micro neutron has zero f, where f is an undetermined force factor. For convenience, the micro electron, micro proton and micro neutron are respectively named emoton, psychon (McCulloch and Pitts, 1943) and neumaton. Collectively they may be given the term noumenon, though not necessarily in the Kantian sense. The noumenon here is a permeating axion that isomorphously condenses within an ordinary subatomic particle.

Since all life forms are made of the same matter, certain structural and functional similarities at the basic level of the cell components can exist in the different phyla. However, there is a sharp delineation into plant, animal and human, from the inanimate world. The DNA information, both dark and ordinary, is a causal factor here. The ordinary and the dark DNA code seem to differ in content of information in plants, animals and humans.

There seems to be genetically determined different subsets of subatomic particles and their dark counterparts in plants, animals and humans. The information associated with the dark matter is different in the animate and inanimate realms; so also are the dark chemistries in each realm. Plants have only emotons; animals have emotons and psychons but no neumatons. Humans have all the three. These differences and/or selectivity are genetically ordained. [See McCulloch and Pitts, 1943 for use of the term psychons]

Plant cells have (electron + Emoton), proton and neutron, where proton and neutron are also suffused with axions which are not confined within them and do not enter into any dark reactions. Alternatively, all the three elementary particles may have the dark counterparts. In either case, the plant genetic materials (both dark and visible) have information that determines the nature and functions of the plant cells. Animal cells have (Psychon + protons), (electron + emoton) and neutron. The dark matter permeates the neutrons in animal cells but have no dark atom chemistries, because the axions are not confined within their neutrons. Then again, all the three elementary particles of animal cells may have the dark complements. In either case, the animal genetic materials (both dark and visible) have information that determines the nature and functions of the animal cells. Humans have all the three subatomic particles permeated with the axions. Human genetic materials, made of both ordinary and dark matter, have information that determines the nature and functions of the human cells.

The genetic structure is almost identical in all animals, plants and bacteria. The close resemblance between insects and vertebrates, humans and bacteria are startling! The organs and limbs of animals, the roots, leaves and flowers of plants have all nearly the same universal DNA double helix. For any given living organism, all its cells descend from one cell. Since all living forms are made of the same gluons, quarks and electrons which are completely and exhaustively described by the laws of physics (Tipler, 1994, p xi), it is often assumed that there must be a message about an "all encompassing principle of the unity of life, even more universal than the cell theory" (Klein, 1970, p 150). Yet, living systems are so diverse, even within the same phylum, indicating a corresponding diversity in genetic information. The similarities in the visible genetic structures fails to account for the phylogenic order, including the levels of consciousness and the hierarchy of mental activities, in the biosphere. The subsets described above of subatomic particles and the noumenons of axion like dark matter particles can account for these differences. The electron subsets are the same for all plants, animals and humans. The proton subsets are the same for animals and humans, but different in plants. The neutron subsets are

found only in humans and this matrix is empty for both plants and animals. In other words, only emotons participate in plant cells, both emotons and psychons are involved in the animal cells. Only in humans, all three noumenons are active. The information on these subsets within the genetic materials is species specific. Resonance & Consciousness

Resonance has a relational character. Two or more apparently different things or phenomena are linked. They can selectively communicate being integrated into a systemic whole. The links that unite the visible physical objects and the dark-matter processes have their source in the process of resonance. It initiates and amplifies a vibratory response (a link) in the visible receiving system that is attuned to the dark emitting system, rather similar to tuning a radio set to different radio frequencies. The frequency of the receiving and the emitting systems must be very close or equal. During resonance, the dark matter frequencies can be received by the corresponding foci of the visible body, when energy transfers from the emitting source to the receiver. The received energy brings with it the information forms and patterns of vibrations of the emitting source. Specific energies may be associated with specific feelings, inner states, information, ideas, etc.

The details of how the subtle and the ordinary bodies interact can be now pursued without resorting to metaphysics. Scientific methodology may not be effectively applicable for this purpose, until we can experiment with subtle matter directly in super colliders. Then, science, philosophy and psychology and all related fields may possibly undergo a significant revolution, cognitively and technologically. The physical and the mental will loose their customarily dualistic implications. There will be no need for the mystical underpinnings for consciousness, either. What is mental may be a super-physical reality. There is nothing unusual about it in the Western thought, since physical resurrection has been a fundamental New Testament principle, well reasoned and articulated by the Apostle Paul (1 Corinthians Chapter 15, among many others).

Then science need not accept and entertain spooky notions and make quantum leaps in to the bizarre to explain consciousness. The resonance between the luminous structural forms and their nonluminous forms made of dark matter is a physical phenomenon, making one recognize the other. This enables us to shift the problem of sentience and consciousness to this subtle body and leave the operational functions to the visible body, and offers a conceptual basis to work from. A dark matter body may be wrapped up in us without being detected. That seems like the mind stuff. But it is physical.

Self-awareness is a recognition problem. In the resonance of the parallel structures, each structure is programmed to identify its resonant forms. Recognition is a resonance phenomenon. Resonance between the ordinary and dark matter system act as a body/mind transducer. Consciousness stays as long as the ordinary energy form is connected to the dark matter energy forms. When the body disintegrates, the axion forms remain in a dormant state. It will require enormous energy to awaken this state and re-entangle with the visible forms of matter.

Storage and retrieval are the same neuronal procedures. New thoughts will be stored in the axion memory. A new axion thought just "triggers" an old one and the thoughts linked to it, according to the general principle of signaling in the nervous system. This is not Cartesian dualism. It ascribes phenomenal contents to dark-matter forms. Thus, in principle, there is a link between extended brain-state patterns and the extended shapes of phenomenal experience. Then it is no mystery that a circular pattern in the brain substrate would correlate with the same shape in phenomenal experience, rather than a cubical shape. Paradigm Shift

Abandoning a baryon-centric view of the physical world to a more complex baryon-nonbaryon system should not collapse the well-established standard model of the particle world. It may dethrone electrons, neutrons and protons (or ordinary baryons) from the center of the physical realm and add an invisible world in resonance with and coupled to the visible world. Possibly, this may offer a scientific basis for solving the mind-body problem. The invisible conscious mind may be of this extraordinary medium. The ordinary brain and the axion brain will exist in resonance and in parallel with each other.

A spiritual body is in tune with the original Hebraic and orthodox Christian view of a physical resurrection as found in both the Hebrew and Greek Testaments. (See Job 19:26, Daniel 12: 2-3; Isaiah 26: 19; Mathew 28:9; John 20:27; 21:13-20; 1 Corinthians 15: 44). The difference between a spiritual body and a physical spirit is only semantic. A spiritual body may be an all-pervading body of nonbaryonic matter with no electric charge. This extraordinary stuff may be the axion like dark matter. The mysterious physical-spiritual gap is bridged by means of dark matter. The subtle physics and chemistry of this exotic matter may yield subtle bodies. This may enable us to have a deeper perspective of life, mind, consciousness, the nature of man (pristine and fallen), our position in the universe, a better appreciation of our actions, decisions, free-will and their consequences at personal, social, and global levels.

One may have to learn to acclimatize to the idea that what is coupled to and operates on a physical body may very well be superbly or extraordinarily physical. Interestingly, the Biblical record begins with an affirmative statement involving the Creative Word: "Let there be light" (Genesis 1: 2-3). The light here refers to "luminosity", in the original Hebrew. This is stated differently in John 1:1, as "in the beginning was the Word". "Word" archetypically presupposes vibrations of some sort. Because "light or luminosity was separated from darkness"(Genesis 1:3), it seems to indicate here that darkness or dark matter existed before light or luminous matter, and not all of this obscure stuff, or dark matter, was turned into luminosity. Many times in the Hebrew and Greek Scriptures, darkness refers to obscure matter (see James Strong‘s Concordance). Darkness is referred as follows: "He sets an end to darkness"; "darkness hid in its secret places"; "a swaddling band set for darkness"; "where is its place" (Job 28:3, Job 20:26, 38:9, 38:19); "darkness was under His feet"; "made darkness His secret place", "darkness round about Him"; "blackness of darkness" (Ps. 18:11, Ps 18:9, Jude 13). The space between the "let there be light" instant and the separation of luminous matter from dark matter constitutes time, i.e. space-time.

In a general sense, the physics of the brain and the dynamics of conscious mind are related through invisible quantum entities. Neurons are made of semi-local waves of matter in "vacuum" space enveloped by non-local waves. These semi-localized waves collapse into stable structures in the cosmic expanse permeated by "all the non-local waves", as well as some unknown dark matter waves. Thus, a neuron is semi-locally structured piece of the quantum-vacuum continuum, interfacing "matter" and the "vacuum". In this flow of matter-energy quanta, there is an invisible resonance mechanism that generates, store, transfer and recognize information. Dark-matter structures may provide a base for this dark mechanism.

At the primary level of reality, the perceptible physical universe itself may be a manifestation of thought. The ontological fabric of the universe smacks of a thought-stuff (Edington, 1928, Jeans, 1929). This mind-stuff need not be metaphysical. It may be the invisible axion forms. As such, the mind-stuff may be a fundamental property of the universe made of discrete quanta of dark matter. There need be no infinite number of parallel universes, as certain interpretations of the quantum theory would require (Everett, 1957). One invisible (dark) parallel universe of intelligence that can produce an immense array of information may straddle the visible universe. The psychons, neumatons and emotons described above may provide the components of this mind stuff, each geometrically permeating the corresponding ordinary particle counterpart. The phenomenon of subjectivity is "an imagining spun out by this mind stuff" (Edington (1928) in resonance with the perceptible physical counterparts.

They are not free floating dark matter particles, but axion-like extraordinary matter existing as Bose-Einstein Condensates (BEC). They are confined within and permeate their conjugate luminous particles (proton, neutron and electron). For each of the physical atom (phi-atom) in the system, a corresponding mind atom (psy-atom) exists. The structure of dark matter and dark chemistries will then provide a means to arrive at the structure of mind. In other words, the elusive mind stuff is made of axion like dark matter.

The relation between dark and luminous matter forms may be similar to the semiotic relation between objects and their signs. A manifold S1 of ordinary objects is bound up with an isomorphous manifold of S2 dark objects, with certain fundamental relations existing between the two. An array of phenomenal qualities defined by axion like dark matter structures or conformations may be ordered in a 3-dimensional space, according to their apparent similarities. This will correspond to a neuronal system whose states also can be arranged in a 3-dimensional state space (See Lockwood, 1989). The two states may be equated with each other. The phenomenal qualities may be identical with the dark matter states, confined within, corresponding to, and in resonance with, the ordinary physical systems. Secondary qualities like colors are then merely a series of values of mathematical functions related to the three dimensions of space (Weyl, H, 1934). The secondary properties need not reside in the invisible and inexplicable extra spatial dimensions of something like M-theory, or Bohm’s curious hidden variables. They are simply the dark neuronal structures. Conclusion

Human consciousness is evident but not physically detectable. A non-material thing can be purely physical, such as the photon, neutrino, energy, field, space, time etc., but it makes no such sense to suggest that non-material mind can be physical. The only physical mind that science recognizes is the brain. Axions, and possibly axion atoms made of axion fundamental particles, make it plausible that the invisible mind stuff is physical. Due to the absence of electrical charges in dark matter, other forces such as resonance, spin, graviton-exchange, entanglement or an as yet undetermined force may enable them to interact between themselves, couple to and resonate with the ordinary physical world. Spin and configuration may play important roles here, as in ordinary chemical bonds. The mind-body problem will putatively shift to this invisible internal physicality. A model of consciousness could be developed on the basis that the resonance of a dark soma made of quantum coherent axion like Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC), with its corresponding ordinary body. Resonance makes each body recognize the other. Recognition is awareness.

Acknowledgments Heartfelt thanks to my sons, Ivan, Evan, Bevan and Cyril, and to Rev. & Mrs. Stoney Shaw for the many helps, observations and stimulating discussions.

References Cramer, John ("http://mist.npl.washington.edu/av/altvw05.html)

Eddington, Sir Arthur Stanley, 1928. The New Encyclopedia Britannica, 30 Volumes,

Vol. 6, Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc., 298

Everett III, Hugh. 1957. "Relative state" formulation of quantum mechanics. Rev. Mod.

Phys. 29: 454-462.

Geroch, R. 1984. Npos, 4, 617-33

Giraud, E. 1998, Astrophysical Journal, 116, 1125, 2177

Griest, Kim. The Search for the Dark Matter: WIMPs and MACHOs. Annals of the New

York Academy of Sciences. vol 688. 15 June 1993: 390-407.

Hu, Wayne, Rennan Barkana, and Andrei Gruzinov (2000) Physical Review Letters 85,

1158, issue of 7 August, Fuzzy Cold Dark Matter

http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v85/p1158

Jeans, 1929, The Mysterious Universe, p 186, New York: Macmillan, 1932

Keener, Matt C, 1999 A Theory of Life

Lockwood, Michael, 1989 Mind, Brain and the Quantum (Oxford, Basil Blackwell).

Mateo, Mario. "Searching for Dark Matter." Sky and Telescope. Jan. 1994: 20-24

Meier, C.A (editor), 1992 "Wolfgang Pauli and C.G.Jung. Ein Briefwechsel 1934-1958"

McCulloch, W. S., and Pitts, W. H., Bull. Math. Biophys. 5, 115, 1943. Pauli, W., Letter

to Jung dated 27.February 1953, Springer Verlag .

Northoff, George 2003, Qualia & Ventral Prefrontal Cortical Function' (JCS Vol.10, #8)

Okhatrin, Anatoly, Doklady 1989, [See Physicsweb.org/article/world/15/7/7, Strange

Events Hit Rural England, Matin Durrani, Dy Editor, Physics World News: July 2002].

Peccei, R. D., and H. R. Quinn, CP Conservation in the Presence of Pseudo particles,"

Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1440 (1977). Constraints Imposed by CP Conservation in the

Presence of a Pseudo particle," Phys. Rev. D 16, 1791 (1977)

Riordan, Michael and David Schramm, 1991. The Shadows of Creation: Dark Matter and

the Structure of the Universe. New York: W. H. Freeman and Co.

Silk, Joseph, 1989. The Big Bang (revised edition), USA: W. H. Freeman & Co.

Trefil J. 1993, Dark Matter. Smithsonian, 1993: 29.

Weik, M, 1989 Communications Standard Dictionary, 2nd ed., Dr. M. Weik, 1989 (Van

Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, NY.

West, Michael J., 1992 "Clusters of Galaxies. The Astronomy and Astrophysics

Encyclopedia.

New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Weyl, H Mind and Nature, pp. 8-10, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1934.

Philip P. Benjamin, PhD

medinuclear@hotmail.com

2280 McKelvey Road

St. Louis MO 63043

End of Noetic Journal Vol.4 No.4, October 2003 351

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Monday, November 1, 2004 4:42 PM

11-01-04

Is a self-caused being possible, except in the case of an Uncaused Cause. Is
a self-caused action (i.e. an action not caused by another) impossible? I
suppose, the answer to both is no.

We cannot *be* (exist) prior to our *being* (existence), but we have to *be*
before we can *do*. Even a do-nothing being is logical. One has to exist
(perhaps in invisible Aristotelian forms, along with the physical forms),
before one can act.

The Platonic ineffable form will not be adequate to explain consciousness.
However, there is no need to separate the engine from the energy, or
Piaget's cognitive constructs from actual physical structures, if the Aristotelian forms are *real*. There seems to be a scientific basis for the reality of these forms (as invisible but real physical configurations, if dark matter and possibly dark chemistry are also taken into consideration), which is brought out in a recent Noetic Journal article (Vol 4, # 4, October 2003, Eccles Centennial Edition;
: "javascript:ol('http://noeticcenter.tripod.com/');").Copy & paste on your browser:

"http://noeticcenter.tripod.com/"

"http://noeticcenter.tripod.com/periodictableofpersonalities/"periodictableofpersonalities/

Philip P.Benjamin, PhD
mailto:medinuclear@hotmail.com
                     

Dark Chemistry or Psychic Spin Pixel?                                                  NeuroQuantology, June 2007; Vol. 5 # 2: 197-204    

MATERIALISM EXTRAORDINAIRE

                                    PHILIP BENJAMIN PhD

Abstract

Reality is not a mere mathematical function or a metaphysical process. The fundamental objects that populate the real world and their complexities, do last through time. These enduring objects of our subjectivity are not mere patterns of chronological events stored in the transient electro-magnetic realm of neurons and their correlates. However, the composite of stable patterns emerging from sequential processes in the ordinary matter and its wave forms, has only an appearance of permanence, offering an idealist speculation that the reality of mind is a derivative of this apparent constancy. They must be backed up (piggybacked) by parallel, permanent, non-electromagnetic components that will provide the real intransience, to justify fully the basic claims of substance ontology. If dark matter particles (axions) are as diverse, and reactive via gravitons and spin, as are electrons, protons and neutrons are through charge and spin, then a dynamic unity of ordinary matter structures in resonance with those of the parallel dark-matter will offer a logical explicatory framework for mind and mental phenomena, as the reality beyond the ordinary atomic elements. The wave-like properties of dark macro-bodies are significant, since they have relatively negligible masses. Genetics encoded on both dark and luminous bio-systems will naturally select and govern the bonding of dark particles. Mental activity is no more to be perceived as a mystical process. An invisible material substance makes the difference between mind and body, consummating physical reality. That calls for an extraordinary materialism.

Introduction

For too long, Science had to sideline consciousness because even a pragmatic definition of mind is unrealistic from the perspective of its ordinary materialist premises. Serious research into human consciousness has now become conventional, with many well known publications and forums including print journals (Consciousness and Cognition, and Journal of Consciousness Studies, Noetic Journal). The Center for Consciousness Studies at the University of Arizona in Tucson, USA, is the trail-blazer, with its large international semi-annual conferences since 1994. Parapsychology, Transpersonal Psychology, Consciousness and Experiential Psychology etc are common features in major psychology journals, since the 1990’s. Studies on the relationship of consciousness to the humanities including theatre, fine arts, media arts and literature are also current.

Materialism is a form of realism which assumes that a mind independent reality exists. Or, the world is really autonomous of the knowing subject, and everything that exists is material and self-caused. All phenomena including those of the mind and consciousness, are ultimately reducible to the motions of ordinary matter. According to Moser & Trout, (1995) materialism is now a major ontology for philosophers and scientists. A materialist view is a holistic approach related to systems theory. Even the concept of information itself is understood from a materialist perspective (Hjørland, 2002; Karpatschof, 2000). Materialistic reductionism ignores all aspects of consciousness other than its input to behavior. Eliminativism considers thinking and feeling as mere theoretical or speculative concepts. A robot with exact human behaviors is human. There are no mental states and no intentionality. Mind is passé. It is a human concept with no hard scientific basis. Supervenience and emergence make the mind a neuronal epiphenomenon. The Identity Theory identifies the mind with a complex neural structures. Stimuli cause brain states which lead to behavioral responses (Armstrong,1968; Smart, 1963). It specifies mental states as dispositions. The materialist may accept the irreducibility of mind, but claim that its relationship to ordinary matter is more than mere causal dependence.

Quantum physics as understood today contradicts this materialistic notion of an objective world existing independent of observation. The basic problem in quantum theory is this: If some system S is fully defined to be in state S0 at time t0, then what is the probability of specifying S to be in state S1, at time t1, immediately after t0? In Newtonian physics the predicted probability is unity or zero depending on whether S1 = S0 or not. But quantum theory treats this as a solution to a statistical equation describing S, and gives an answer that usually is neither unity nor zero, but infinite odds in between. The key issue, is the origin and significance of our subjectivity that chooses a preferred course of observation (measurement) of S. These subjective judgments are supposedly allowed by quantum theory to have the effects that they seem to make, and are attributed to a mental realm. Thus the theory is interpreted to make experience ontologically fundamental, while retaining intact all its mathematical and logical structures including statistical uncertainties.

The ontology of ordinary materialism rests upon the impression that the actual world that physically exists, can be explained in terms of the ordinary subatomic units of matter. Such extrapolations are futile so far. Perhaps, the omission of an extraordinary material realm, such as Dark Matter may be the key factor contributing to this impasse. Evidence for the existence of dark matter is abounding in theoretical physics and astrophysical calculations. Philosophy as the art of making distinctions between differences, must distinguish materialism based on ordinary matter from that which includes possibly extraordinary matter also. Hu, et al, (2000) and Jerome http://go.to/QUFD indicate diversity of axions. That suggests the feasibility of dark chemistry, possibly based on gravitons and spin, similar to charge and spin in ordinary chemistry.

Then Self-consciousness or awareness of awareness, further adds to the mystery. If neural correlates cause awareness, there must be neural correlates of neural correlates to cause self-awareness; likewise for supervenience and emergence. Ordinary materialistic universe cannot have two physico-chemical worlds which are exactly identical, except for some new detail. A mental state M must be a real physical state P, if M were to couple to a material state S. Since M is invisible, P must also be invisible. Dark Matter could be the likely physical realm for P. That calls for an extraordinary materialism, yet physical.

Ordinary Materialism

Actual particles of physics as the final reality constitute the basis of classical materialism. It ought to be redefined as ordinary materialism, if a parallel all pervading dark-mater realm of particles also exists, with its own binding/bonding capacities and chemistries. Ordinary materialism can only conclude that, in the final analysis, our intellect is most probably encoded in electrons and photons at quantum level in a thermodynamic setting. Theoretically speaking, it takes only one electron to remember everything on a computer hard disk, if that information is phase-encoded in its fundamental modes of oscillation. Ahn, Weinacht and Bucks Baum (2000) from the University of Michigan were the first to demonstrate experimentally on a small scale, that information can indeed be phase-encoded in electrons using photons (light).The theoretical storage capacity of a single electron, or even a single photon of light, is phenomenal, even though the actual encoding and retrieving of the information using the technology is not available today (Meyer, D.A. et al 2000). A large number of backup copies can be made by encoding every electron, every photon and every other elementary natural oscillation. The discrete phase-encoding spread among many natural forms of oscillation over a wide frequency spectrum seems an attractive possibility. Ricciardi and Umezawa (1967) used quantum field theory to describe brain states, specifically the memory states They treated memory states as inequivalent representations of vacuum states of quantum fields, as in in the states of many-particle systems [10]. Stuart et al.(1978, 1979), Jibu and Yasue (1995) refined these proposals. Vitiello (1995), Pessa and Vitiello (2003) included effects of dissipation, chaos, and quantum noise. Vitiello (2001, 2002) give clear non-technical reports of current versions of this approach.

Ordinary materialism attempts to identify intentional conscious acts with physical state reductions (of matter waves into particles). The wave function does correspond to a physical reality, but not the reality itself. It is an unproven and un-falsifiable presumption that consciousness causes collapse of a mathematical construct called wave function. The next assumption is that this very same collapse of wave function causes a moment of consciousness. That is circular reasoning. A series of these moments of collapse is supposed to form a stream of consciousness. Then, panpsychism automatically follows, because these processes are universally applicable to all particles and their supposed precursor waves. Pantheism and cosmic consciousness follow. This is quantum interpretations and mysticism, not quantum mechanics. Consciousness does not cause collapse of anything, anymore than the name Katrina causes hurricanes!

Quantification of a property of matter by an equation, does not give that property itself the status of an independent physical entity. Chance, chaos, entropy, temperature, volume of sound, intensity of light, form etc are quantifiable qualities pertaining to matter. But, none of these ‘qualities’ has an independent ontological existence. At certain dimensions of its "real" existence, matter behaves like waves. This specific wave like property has no independent existence at any time, apart from the particulate matter at its fundamental level of existence. So much so, David Bohm (1990) theorizes the simultaneous existence of both particle and its wave. Consciousness has as much to do with matter waves, as the cock-crowing does for the dawn! These notions constitute no testable theory.
A thin gold foil can be easily put through a narrow slit, but the same foil when rolled up into a ball will not go through. It is not CONSCIOUSNESS of the handler which makes the difference, but the measurable “real” malleability and ductility of gold that do it. These properties do not hover over gold as independent entities. The success of quantum mechanics is not because some consciousness-driven ubiquitous waves of matter float in space, but because matter has measurable wave like properties at its fundamental level of existence. Attributing a separate metaphysical existence to the invisible so called matter-waves (i.e. wave-like properties of matter) is not warranted. In the brain, there are only fundamental particles of matter chemically and physically bound to form macro aggregates, no free drifting matter-waves to accommodate the notion of quantum mind.

In the limit of a universal symmetry breaking at the psychophysically neutral level, every system must have both a mental and a material aspect; and since quantum phenomena are universal, everything must be mental, be it animate or inanimate. Then rocks, plants and animals must have equally demonstrable consciousness as in humans. Egalitarian panpsychism becomes the natural order (Skrbina, 2003). Then, how can panpsychism account for qualitative and quantitative differences between plant, animal, and human awareness, as well as the distinctions between different levels of human mental activities- conscious, self-conscious and unconscious? Awareness is not the same as self-awareness.

Matter-waves and their superposition are just concepts of properties of particles, which become measurable at certain minimum dimensions of their real existence. But it is matter with mass which behaves like waves. This leads to befuddling measurement problems, since these behave both as particles and waves depending on the method of observation! Consciousness has as much to do with it, as the cock-crowing does for the dawn! Attributing a separate metaphysical existence to the so called matter-waves (which are only wave-like properties of matter) is unreal. In the brain, various fundamental particles of matter are chemically and physically bound to form macro aggregates. There are no free, drifting matter-waves in neurons and synapses of the brain. The electromagnetic fields permeating neurons and synapses consist of real and virtual photons, in their wave states, and each being a disturbance in the photon field with no extra-physical mental properties. Even if they are atavistically mental, how can mind be stable and enable an immense density of information storage, in the constant flux of particles recycling in the living cells, sometimes within minutes? The non-electric dark matter particles can stay put. A living cell is a totality that cannot be fully and completely known by studying all its differentiating and integrating processes. It may reproduce itself, or be given birth solely by some other living cell. There is no spontaneous generation of sentience, nor can an artificial living cell be produced by integrating the information obtained from knowing the differentiating processes of a natural living cell. Unlike rebuilding a disassembled mechanical motor, a living cell cannot be rebuilt from its elementary parts. Neurons are not universal cells for information processing that gives rise to subjective feelings and self-awareness. Otherwise, all animals must be conscious as humans. Especially so, since all animals from bacteria to humans possess the same or closely similar genetic molecular structures as well as control and regulatory mechanisms for their organ-functions including the brain. In humans, there is no quantitative correlations of mental capacities and performances with the number of neurons (size of brain), if they are required to produce subjective conscious experience. Consciousness is a unity. The brain is not one complex computer made of simpler (differentiated) computers/neurons organized (integrated) into a single network system. Every neuron is a holistic totality, and so also is the neural network. It is one whole totality of totalities, each with its own differentiations and integrations. Beck and Eccles (1990, 1992) and Beck (2001) give precise mechanisms of information transfer at the synaptic cleft. However, the problem of the activity of single synapses entering into the dynamics of neural assemblies persist, and fails to elucidate mental causation by quantum processes.

Even if a spectrum of consciousness exists across all complexities, it still offers no explanation of how these unconscious chaotic elemental-waves will or can produce the wholesome consciousness we enjoy. Why should neural correlates correlate into consciousness? Why should processes process into thoughts? Why should supervenience or emergence be conscious? Self consciousness require another layer of these same processes. To make sense, the universe itself must be alive to begin with, a notion cherished by Vedic fakirs and modern shamans. [Incidentally, when such primitive ideas of fakirs and shamans were reckoned as science, it was attributed to their widely known use of mind altering natural products, known as mind expanding drugs which became trendy as a fast way to knowledge power, opening only the psychedelic doors of fantasy].

Natural science claims that most, if not all, phenomena are intelligible in material terms. Mind is an exception. Consciousness or subjective experience, and the intentionality of thought which is the property of being about something beyond itself (aboutness), seem not to be physical in the ordinary sense. At the fundamental level of existence, Science depicts the world as made of quantum units of space-time which is the abode of everything, matter-waves which are wave-like energy-packets, and force-energy which assigns matter-waves their place in space-time. This is the quantum trinity. It is also believed that the space is filled with dark energy, and Higgs bosons which give to massive particles their mass and thus gravity. In this material milieu exists a tri-level sentience of plants, animals and humans. Science has to reckon Human mind as an invisible but very active stuff of human life, an integral part of another triune system of sensory somatic apparatus (sensorium), intelligence machine (mind) and consciousness mechanism (awareness/self-awareness), a holistic shell of vibrant loops within loops.

Quantum theory may play a role in explaining the relationship of consciousness to brain (Eccles, 1986). The patterns of electrical activity in brain create a model of a computer-self in the world of our existence. But, why consciousness exists at all and why is it ostensibly a permanent unity? If dark matter is included, possibly quantum theory may slowly reveal some of these profound mysteries, without mystical misapplications. Bonding and Interaction of Particles

Why do matter particles interact at all? It is still a fiddly question that beset science. The puzzle is that things interact without touching! At the macro level, there is action (gravity) at a distance, even galaxies apart, without contact. The sun attracts the earth and the other planets. Two magnets (substances with a certain precise alignments of electron configurations) attract or repel as if they "sense" each other's presence. All that is available here is substance. Calling these forces as "gravity" and "magnetism," is begging the question. Gravity does not vanish when mass turns to energy. In fact, gravitation does not depend directly on mass, it acts through the energy (and momentum) of the matter involved. If the matter changes in some way to reduce its rest mass, this would have no long range effect on the gravitational field, because there is no net change in energy of the gravitating matter. It is generally the total energy (rest energy plus kinetic energy etc.) that is important for gravity, whether the particle in question has a rest mass or not. Gravity bends light rays (beams of photons). It acts on everything, including space itself! What causes it is simply unknown. Quantum gravity is yet another mystery. So is dark energy.

Physics does not know what these forces are. It can only say that at the fundamental level, a force is a thing which is passed between two particles. Winkler, K. et al. (2006), report that atom pairs can also bind together even through repulsive, rather than attractive, forces. This basically alters the molecular concept. Intuitively, a bound system of atoms implies an attractive force between them. However, to reach an equilibrium configuration, a repulsive force must balance the attraction. Otherwise the system would easily collapse. In the quantum world, attraction is not even needed to form a stable bound system. Repulsion can also effect a stable binding in the presence of a periodic spatial perturbation, where the energy cannot vary continuously, but is restricted to specific values. In order to conserve energy, repulsion between a pair of particles can lead to stable binding, if nonbinding would lead the two isolated atoms to have energies in a forbidden range (Bloch 2005, Feshbach 1958 and Fallani et al. 2006).

Substance reality of the ordinary materialism, is a continuum of relational interactions. Chemical Bond is crucial for formation of complex bimolecular and all entities beyond the atomic structure. At the micro level, protons are held together with enormously strong nuclear forces within the submicroscopic nucleus, though like charges must repel on contact. Indeed they do repel outside the nuclear potential well. At the atomic and molecular level, electrons are held together in pairs in their orbitals around the nucleus, though we expect them to strongly repel each other. Electric charges alone cannot account for chemical bonding, stable electron configurations (periodicity of elements) is also a key factor. Mendeleev’s chemical periodicity of elements, a law of nature, is not defined by a simple numerical relationship, or nomological formulae. Chemists attribute stability of atoms and molecules to duet and octet electron configurations, extrapolated from the empirical observation that the noble gases (rare gases) of the last group of the periodic table are the most stable elements. The number of electrons in their outer shells, 2 for helium, and 8 for the rest, complete the shells. Generally, atoms with incomplete outer electron shells are reactive. They contribute or share electrons between them resulting in the stable duet or octet configurations of the noble gases.

Quantum Mechanics is not in conflict with the chemical model of a molecule as a rigid structure of nuclei held together by shared electrons. The electron shells are only the quantum energy levels of electrons within each atom. The distribution of electrons within an energy level forms the electron clouds, or the atomic orbitals . An atomic orbital has a determined form and orientation, and can maximally contain two electrons, each in a different spin state, up or down. These two electron waves 'mix' in a way that yields the lowest energy. The atom itself strives for a totally saturated outer octet or duet shell, because this is a very stable state (inert Noble Gas configurations). Quantum chemistry gives an almost full account of how atoms combine into molecules (and molecular ions). The theorem is only an approximation due to special quantum effects, particularly in excited states, for instance vibrational coupling that involves transitions between two structures. Energy states and electron configuration determine the way atoms can form bonds with each other resulting in molecular structures. In reality, it is spatial, temporal and spin relationships between electrons, each of which is unaware of itself and the relationships with each other. Dark matter also may have analogous affinities.

Under suitable external conditions, a molecular dynamic system consisting of two or more element-systems results in the creation of a fundamentally real and stable new unit of physicality, a new totality. For example, the dynamic natural law governing two atoms at certain energy levels can be explained by quantum chemical determination of the energy states of atoms and molecules. According to this law, every free system tends toward the highest order of stability by striving to reach the lowest possible energy state. If two negatively charged electrons from the visible matter can reach a configurationally stable combination in a philosophically sound atomic or molecular orbital, it is not beyond the realm of reason to postulate a similar atomic and molecular configuration for axions of the dark matter, via possibly gravitons and spins. Axions may be as diverse as ordinary atoms, with particles parallel to electron, proton and neutron. These may be respectively called Axion-e, Axion-p and Axion-n, with three different masses and Axion-e being the smallest. Like the electron, Axion-e may be a universal constituent present in plants, animals and humans, and conjugated to electrons. Axion-p bind to protons, but by genetic laws is present only in animals and humans, not in plants. Axion-n bind to neutrons and may be present only in humans. So, in humans the three Axions may form structures parallel to ordinary atoms. Perhaps gravitons or gravitinos may be involved, both negative and positive. Spin is another factor. These may have similar roles in axion atoms, as charge and spin in ordinary atoms.

The electron is in reality the biggest and an axion-e the smallest of particles with mass, for which the wave-particle dichotomy is applicable. Quantum numbers abound in atomic theory. They represent quantum possibilities of energy levels that emerge, and could be applicable to the dark matter also. As in ordinary matter, dark-atoms will have the principal quantum number n, which can take the values 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ...n . Each n will have a principal energy level or a dark shell. Each shell will have n subshells. Each subshell has one or more orbitals within it; the s, p, d, f, g subshells have 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 orbitals respectively. The rules of placing axion-e within dark shells with nuclei made of axion-p and axion-n, may form the Dark Matter Aufbau principle and dark chemistries, yielding dark molecules, dark cells and dark bodies. Akin to the lighter ordinary atomic species, the lower Axion atoms, may have two main orbitals: the spherical orbitals or the s-orbital of the lowest energy levels (with the axion nucleus in the center), the dumbbell-shaped orbitals or p-orbitals of next higher energy levels (with the axion nucleus in the 'waist'). The rules of molecular structure, the directed valence bonds for each reactive atomic element, are natural laws governing conversion of simpler components into larger complexities. They could be applicable to axions also. The major difference is, while the wave-like properties of ordinary atoms or molecules can be ignored for most practical purposes, they are significant for all dark atoms and molecules, since they have relatively negligible masses. Mental states and material states will be both physical, if they are distinguished as extraordinary and ordinary material phenomena. The brain is then a many-particle system of neurons permeated by their axion counterparts, at an energy level which directly correlates with mental activity. Mental activity is co-produced by the visible brain and the invisible axion counterpart. It is more likely that the entire visible body, permeated by an invisible body of axions is involved in consciousness. Self-consciousness could be a product of mutually recognizing resonant structures. The restrictions of standard quantum mechanics are not relevant here, since the axion masses are negligibly small. If mental states are the primary objects of reference, the axion model shows explicatory features in a very subtle and refined manner.

The mental and material manifestations may inherit mutual correlations due to the fact that they are jointly caused by the visible body and the permeating invisible body, con-centering into a holistic hypostasis. There is the possibility of a direct causal interaction between mental and material domains. This scheme can explain the ubiquitous correlations between mental states and brain states, better than ordinary materialism. Mind Stuff

Why should consciousness exist at all? Can it occur in any and every type of material substance, or only in a specific kind of carbon-based molecular substrate? Are the properties of non-electric dark matter such as permeability, invisibility, suggestive of mentality? Where is the seat of consciousness? More specifically is its locus any part of the brain or is it endemic to the whole nervous system, or the whole body? What causes consciousness to oddly arise or emerge from, matter or its structural forms and mechanisms? What is its function in the general scheme of mental activity and behavior of an organism? Who or what can be termed a conscious being? What function does phylogeny play in mental states of living entities? Is a plant, or an animal or a robot conscious as a human? A versatile robot must be human! But it is not.

Why particular regions of brain are active during particular mental activities is still unknown. Emanation of mental states from material brain states, is not backed up by the results of any current neurobiology. There are conceptual ambiguities demanding clarification, concerning the continuous confusion of mental and material states (and their properties). If mental states are the primary objects of reference, the ordinary materialistic models shows very little explicatory features of the subtle mind. Stipulations abound on mind-matter relationship ranging from the Cartesian (Descartes, 2000) duality of a fundamental distinction at an elemental level of existence to mind as an epiphenomenon of an extremely complex and highly ordered material system called the brain (Popper and Eccles, 1977, Eccles, 1994; Chalmers, 1996, and Pauen, 2001). Quantum randomness is invoked, because conscious free choices are fussy in a perfectly deterministic world. But randomness is not conducive to volition and laws of statistics limit the quantum indeterminism of individual events. It is not reasonable to view mind-matter interactions in terms of causal relations in any theoretical frame work such as reduction, supervenience, emergence or quantum stipulations. (Kim, 1998; Stephan, 1999).

So far, all efforts to rescue ordinary materialism from the failure of reduction to elementary matter are fruitless. It cannot opt for the supernatural, or ontological metaphysics. Crafty schemes of epistemological autonomy go nowhere. The Ele/Mental problem relentlessly persists. How did elements become mental? If rocks develop any kind of consciousness, they will have concealed causal powers of mental states. Then, why is it that two rocks behave in an exemplarily consistent way all the time, and do not at least infrequently deviate from their consistent behavior? Complexity of organization has no intrinsic mental qualities and cannot be the elixir of phenomenal consciousness, since such complexities are universal and mind is not. Apparently, a universe devoid of a mind stuff' is necessarily incapable of carrying any phenomenal consciousness. On its own, matter howsoever brilliantly draped in holism, emergence, supervenience, quantum mystery, chaos and ordered complexity, cannot transform into thought. The human body, specifically the brain, is a physical system that naturally manifests intelligence, without offering any adequate causal explanation for it. It is pitifully true that most of the present theories of mind are equally valid and valuable even if the cranium contained only a plastic sponge instead of the brain. Ordinary matter shows no promise of giving rise to mental property anywhere, or an interspecies or intra-species gradient in mental capabilities. An extraordinary matter as the mind stuff is a viable option.

It must be noted that no part of any living system is materially constant, except its structural form. The cells are constantly changing by growth, decay and replacement of its constituent fundamental particles. The chemistry of these structures are in a constant state of flux. The actin filaments in dendrites need replacing within 40 seconds (Star et al, 2002). Every five days, the NMDA receptors are replaced (Shimizu et al, 2000). Activity level controls postsynaptic organization and signaling via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The entire post-synaptic density (PSD) - the protein packed zone that powers synaptic activity - is replaced, molecule for molecule, almost by the hour ( Ehlers 2003). Myelin and RNA molecules are known to last months, and DNA is fairly stable, but they all need recurrent repairs and eventually all constituents particles are replaced regularly. This molecular chaos of ordinary matter, raises the issue of unity, wholeness, and stability of consciousness and demands an extraordinary substrate. The whole brain is recycled constantly, about every other month, synapses being the most active. Only their shapes are maintained. Their component macro molecules disintegrate within minutes of their formation, as revealed by fluorescent tagging. They cannot maintain a steady identity. The new particles cannot carry the old information (memories), but systemic loss of memories or Kaleidoscopic personalities are not the norm. Evidently, the mind substrate must be different from any electromagnetic field associated with the molecules. A new kind of quantum physical substrate seems lurking in the dark with vague properties. What could be more appropriate than the extra ordinary dark matter as this mind stuff?

The neuronal assembly activated by external stimuli make the encoded content accessible to the dark counterparts. The activation leads to excited states with a finite lifetime and enables a conscious recollection of the content encoded in the axion ground state. Stuart et al. (1978, 1979) report detailed investigations of the stability of such states and the role of external stimuli. Vitiello (1995) describes a doubling of the collective modes of the system by its interaction with the environment. Axion counterparts of neurons in their natural states are not the classical thermal systems of charge carrying particles. They permeate the ordinary neurons and could be in highly ordered quantum states which are capable of coherent activity in neuronal assemblies. Coherent neuronal assemblies correlated to axion states could provide conscious states. Infinitely different coded axion states can result, offering the possibility of large thought processes and memory contents without overwriting. Ordinary matter with dark matter offer a viable physical dualism.

Dual-aspect approaches have a long history with beginnings in the distant antiquity. They view mental and material domains of reality as belonging to one underlying ontic reality of undifferentiated mind and matter, compared to the epistemological framework of the distinction between mind and matter. Quantum mechanical variations of this theme have been proposed by Jung and Pauli (1955); Meier (2001); Atmanspacher and Primas (1996) and by Bohm (1990); Bohm and Hiley (1993); Hiley (2001). Bohm and Hiley introduced implicate and explicate order to reflect the distinction between ontic and epistemic domains. Active information in implicate order informs the epistemic explicate order of mind and matter. The term information is used sometimes in the usual Shannon-type epistemic way and at other times as ontic and psychophysically neutral. The epistemic/ontic distinction refers to the distinction between a local reality of empirical facts obtained from classical measuring instruments and a holistic reality of entangled systems (Atmanspacher and Primas, 2003).

Pauli and Jung intuitively represented the distinction between epistemic and ontic domains of material reality as due to quantum phenomena connected by the process of measurement involving consciousness of observers. Jung's depth psychology view these two domains as connected by a process of emergence of conscious mental states from the unconscious, analogous to physical measurement, but includes a universal collective component consisting of the so-called archetypes. They constitute the psychophysically neutral level covering both the collective unconscious and the holistic reality of quantum theory. They order the psychical and physical manifestations in the epistemically distinguished domains of mind and matter, thus mixing epistemically dualistic and ontically monistic approaches. There is a causal relationship (in the sense of formal rather than efficient causation) between the psychophysically neutral, monistic level and the epistemically defined mental and material domains. Physicist Pauli and Psychologist Jung identifies this kind of causation as the ordering operation of archetypes in the collective unconscious.Relation between mind and matter is usually treated either at an epistemological or ontological level. Correlations are usually descriptive with empirical weight, while causation requires ontological theories to explain correlations. Causation entails correlations between cause and effect, but the converse is not always true. Correlations between two systems can have a common cause in their thread and not necessarily a direct causal relation. Basic sciences logically consider causal relations in terms of interactions. Physics recognizes four fundamental kinds of interactions (electromagnetic, weak, strong and gravitational) to explain the correlations in physical systems. However, mind-matter relation is much more complex, since empirical correlations between material and mental states now available are meager. These are not causal explications, only epistemological descriptions trying to salvage materialistic explanatory autonomy from the clutch of ontological reality. Science has a better alternative in terms of extraordinary matter.Extraordinary Materialism

Our present understanding of ordinary physical reality requires mind to be non-physical. Eccles rejected Descartes' notion of mind as a substance. How else can the self control its brain? He suggested a dualistic interaction system that relates to the two co-existent and parallel worlds of Popper (1959, 1977, 1995), where each is independent of the other for its existence and functions. Eccles anchored self to brain states, specifically the physiology of ultra-micro synapses. If each of these two worlds are made of ordinary matter and dark matter respectively, a theory of visible and invisible material systems that are ontologically independent of each other can be developed. The incorporation of the extraordinary physicality of dark matter components corresponding to electrons, protons and neutrons, into the living biosphere of the Newtonian world, will constitute an interiority that invisibly and immaterially permeate everything visible and material. This interiority counters Bohm’s active information of the pilot wave as seat of consciousness. With a dark matter Aufbau in place, reality can be approached with a rich, logical frame work of ontology. Metaphysical abstractions can be replaced with actual physical theories. Physical being can be restored to its ontological status. Physicalism which is often synonymous with Materialism will then be fully meaningful. Ontology will be rescued from metaphysics into a physical realism. Creativity, awareness and self-awareness will be attributed to extraordinary natural elements permeating those that sustain determinism and the static. Heraclitus is right to state that "one cannot step twice into the same river", only if dark matter is excluded. Or else, it is only a half-truth. A non-electric permanent dark body, coupled parallel to the visible one, can become the stable repository of all events including thoughts. This will offer a consistent formal framework toward a novel dual-aspect quantum scheme based on the distinction between tenseless axion time and tensed ordinary time. Dark matter could be the missing link to a fundamental descriptor of reality.

The shortest distance now measurable in physics is of the order of 10-16 cm and Planck’s unit is of the order of 10-33 cm which is the shortest possible length where current concepts of space-time are relevant. The range of scale in between is so vast that that it can accommodate almost limitless number of undetected structures including Bohm’s Pilot Waves which could very well be the theoretical Axions which lie toward the low end of that range, a tiny mass smaller than the electron mass divided by1 followed by 38 zeroes. Axions predicted by GUT are about 10^-5 eV or 2x10^-38 grams. No axion particle has been detected so far [see http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/astro-ph/9801286]. Bohm suggests that there is enough scale between the electron scale and the Planck scale that an electron can be very complex and possess a pilot wave. He attributes to electron an elementary sort of the will and consciousness to follow guidance, like an airplane following a beacon. This avant-garde notion is beyond the idea of Cooper-pairs in a superconductor which sense steer around all the atoms without loss of energy, or Bose Einstein Condensates (BEC) adjusting instantly to environmental changes, and possessing non-locality.

The properties of the axion are basically set by its mass. The larger the axion mass, the more strongly the axion is coupled to protons, neutrons and electrons. The axion/brain coupling is quite clear-cut. Thought patterns are waves in the axion condensate. Electrons merely follow their guidance. Parallel dark mater counterparts of the neuronal assemblies are better candidates for neuronal correlates of mind than quantum waves. Due to relatively negligible masses, their wave properties are significant. A dark matter body permeating the visible body, atom by atom, is less problematic and more pragmatic than any other hybrid ontology of ordinary materialism. Father Jerome [http://go.to/QUFD] gives a metaphysical model that explicitly have consciousness existing in an axion BEC, replacing Bohm’s pilot waves.

Axions may have an intrinsic genetically governed cognitive property C, with values like the electrical charge on proton, electron and the zero charge on neutron. The The human genetic codes on the dark genes recognize all the three axions. These not only permeate the electrons, protons and neutrons, but are entangled with them and between the axions themselves. They form axion-atoms, axion molecules, axion cells and an axion body. The lower animal genetic code recognize only axion-e and axion-p and no axion atomic or molecular structures result. The plant genetic code recognizes only axion-e and here also no axion chemistry can occur. The unknown dark energy may be the source of the mediating force between axions and the fermions of the biosphere.

Penfield (1975), the pioneer in brain surgery, after a lifetime of research insisted that the human consciousness definitely does not originate anywhere in the brain. Quantum theory will not rescue ordinary materialism from mysticism, extraordinary physicalism will. That involves dark matter and possibly dark chemistry. Aside from the intriguing questions germane to this theme, it is useful to examine the appropriateness of incorporating the parallel participation of both visible and invisible matter, that demonstrates a real supervenient relationship. Just like a real chemical system (and less easily a biological system) can supervene on a real physical system, a real invisible axion system of mental states can permeate and supervene the corresponding visible physical system. It is not properties of complex systems of ordinary matter that supervene, but one kind of physicality (non-electric and invisible) supervenes on another kind (electric and visible).

Information initiated by the release of transmitters in the presynaptic terminal, flow between neurons in chemical synapses (Exocytosis). An incoming nerve impulse is rather too small to trigger this. So, thermodynamics or quantum mechanics is applied to statistically describe the trigger mechanism. At room temperature, energies higher than 10-2 eV are needed to distinguished quantum processes from thermal processes. An effective mass below 10 electron masses is sufficient to ensure that quantum processes prevail over thermal processes, over a length of several nanometers, which is typical for biological micro sites. The trigger mechanism of Beck and Eccles (1992) is based on the quantum concept of quasi-particles which reflect the particle aspect of a collective mode. It involves tunneling processes of two-state quasi-particles, resulting in state collapses. The probability of exocytosis is calculated to be in the range of 0 to 0.7, in agreement with empirical observations. The basically indeterministic nature of individual quantum state collapse is supposed to give brain states their volitional powers, but the volition itself is made neurally efficient by temporarily increasing the probability of exocytosis.

Axions could very well be these quasi particles. The upper limit of the time scale of such processes in the quantum regime is of the order of 10-12 sec. This is significantly shorter than the time scale of cellular processes, which is 10-9 sec and longer. The sensible difference between the two time scales makes it possible to treat the corresponding processes as decoupled from one another. Substituting axions for the quasi particles does not change this outline of treating brain processes from a quantum theoretical point of view. However, it is not the quantum trigger alone for exocytosis that is relevant for conscious mental states, but also the axion matrix which provides the physical substrate for mental causation. The wave-like properties of axion atoms and molecules are significant since their masses are less than the electron mass. There is a constancy and stability of wave forms associated with the invisible axion counterparts of the single synapses of the visible brain. This solves the problem of attaining ordered patterns at the level of neuronal assemblies from fundamentally random processes of single synapses. It is needless to invoke quantum stochastic resonance and then in desperation conclude that “ science cannot, by its very nature, present any answer to questions related to mind” (Beck 2001, pp 109f). Axions of the dark matter give an extraordinary material approach to biophysical mind matter interactions.

Axion atoms relevant to life may be very reactive, and made of the three different flavors: a positive particle of negative half-integer spin (Axion-p); a neutral particle of negative half integer spin (Axion-n); a negative particle of positive half-integer spin (Axion-e). In the biosphere, these three Axions permeate and couple with protons, neutrons and electrons respectively. The coupling of the different axions to their counterparts in the ordinary molecules of the living biosphere is governed by the genetic information code. The plant genetics allow only the coupling of Axion-e to electrons, the animal genetics permit an additional Axion-p coupling to protons, and the human genetics allow for the coupling of the additional flovor of axion-n to neutrons. The three axions coupled to the human body will recombine to axion atoms corresponding to those with which they are entangled in the human body. No such recombination information is genetically encoded in plants and animals. There are no invisible rocks or trees or animals, because their basic structural units are not intrinsically coded to have all the three axions. The invisible human body made of the dark atoms consisting of all the three axions is entangled with their corresponding visible atoms.

For all we know now, mind and body are two mutually interacting entities. If mind is a mere form or property of matter, with no mass, no energy, it cannot interface with the body. Neuronal integration/differentiation of stimulus/response signals can only describe what brain does. The issue on hand is ontological, what mind is. It cannot be just a bunch of bosons and fermions of ordinary matter. Why should the human mind be different from that of a plant or a beast which all have very similar or identical processes and structures including DNA? Why should it be different from the mind of a rock? The bosons/fermions are identical ubiquitously. There is a perceptible functional division between mind and body. A similar division of a substance from its form or property is as unfeasible as separating sweetness from sugar. It would appear, what is needed is a real physical, non-baryonic, substrate of mind matter made of sub-atomic particles of negligible individual rest-mass. A non-electric substrate made of subatomic components of dark matter with appropriate spin and mass (infinitesimal) may be what constitutes mind.

Autopoiesis of cells suggests an informed substrate, a common stuff of life, coded for self-organization. The phylogenic diversity with conspicuously different sensory, perceptual and cognitive abilities, in spite of very similar genes of living systems from the smallest microbe to the largest plants and vertebrates, is suggestive of different compositions of the substrate for different species. The semiotics of the visible and corresponding invisible but material structural forms coupled to each other physically may also offer a possible understanding of mind, without requiring a numinous dimension. Just as sentience has a visible well organized complex substrate of ordinary matter, mind also has an equivalent invisible complex substrate of extraordinary matter. They both being derived from a common primary potential may be coupled to each other through gravitons, spins, as well as entangled to recognize each other permanently.

Most of the useful properties of substances in general can be attributed to their electron configurations. However, that does not provide an adequate reason to attribute mental properties to electrons. Principles of quantum mechanics which exclusively deal with conjugate pairs of physical properties (momentum, position etc) cannot be causative factors of mental or social phenomena ( free will, consciousness, dream, behavior etc). So also, Relativity should not be forced into Socialogical and Psychological studies, without reference to the Absolutes of Relativity. The velocity of light in vacuum is an Absolute. Light is the same yesterday, today and for as long as it exists. What are the Absolutes for Psycho-Social sciences? Biology can only speculate on the mysterious complexity of molecular and electrical transmission of nerve signals. Studies and investigations into how signals and messages have meaning and convey information seem to imply that our very thoughts have an invisible physical essence. It is invisible in the sense that no one has ever managed to grasp a thought in a petri-dish, as one might if it were an ordinary physical substance. Our experience seems to be some sort of physical modeling of something dark whose characteristics are probably not directly discernible. An extraordinary stuff seems to exist as the ontological source of matter-based subjectivity.

Mental states are invisible. Yet they exist in the physical realm. They are coupled to a visible physical body. So these states, though invisible, must be physical. They cannot be a metaphysical abstraction, or an uncanny, non-material phantom that mysteriously submerge as some unknown neural correlates or suddenly emerge or supervene as some epiphenomena. Only physical things can supervene on or emerge from the physical. They are actual stable physical states. In fact, a three tier trierarchy of sensorium, awareness and awareness of awareness in humans has to be explained. They manifest as senses, intelligence and consciousness. Animals exhibit only senses and intelligence reflecting a bi-level order and plants have a single sentient level of some sort of sensory existence. If this extraordinary physicality is akin to ordinary matter made of electrons, protons and neutrons, it must also be constituted of three different particles. These extra ordinary particles may be tentatively called emotons, psychons and neumatons (Benjamin 2003). Dark Matter Ontology

As early as the 6th century B.C. Thales and Anaximander in Miletus, introduced a rationalistic approach, instead of mythical accounts, to explain reality. The atomism of Leucippus and Democritus in 5th century B.C. and Aristotle’s metaphysics also imply material substance as the fundamental constituent of reality. Concepts of substance as reality also emerged as a result of the Newtonian view of a deterministic cosmology with clock-like precision. Basic to the understanding of any material process is a quantum theoretical view of ordinary matter.

None of these views could envision a non-electromagnetic dark matter component. It is within the realm of present knowledge to add the extraordinary dark matter also in any materialistic comprehension of reality. When dark chemistry is also allowed, reduction to a ‘ball-and-stick’ chemical scheme at some limit, will better explain life processes including the elusive mind, than ordinary matter with the unitary time evolution of quantum processes of a matter-wave duality. An invisible machine of non-luminous matter, functioning parallel to the visible and in resonance with it will provide sufficient explanatory resources to account for all aspects of the invisible sentient processes, including mind. Thoughts become encoded parallel changes in the invisible neuron configurations. Awareness results from the interaction between the dark and the visible parts. Self-awareness arises from a dynamic process involving mutually recognizable entangled structures in resonance between the visible body and the physical invisible body parallel to it. Recognition is awareness.

The dark matter body will stand in for the Platonic reality for the non-algorithmic (non-computable) elementary acts of consciousness which may be neurophysiologically realized as gravitation-induced Objective Reduction of coherent superposition states in microtubuli (Penrose 1989, 1994, Secs 7.8 and 7.10; Hameroff and Penrose, 1996). It will also explain some of the “gaps in Penrose's toilings” cited by Grush and Churchland (1995). What Bohm (1990) introduced, in effect, as a real quantum mind stuff in the form of smart electrons sensing active information of pilot waves, could be easily replaced by the dark body. Stapp’shybridizaion of “ idea-like and matter-like qualities” into an ontology of “two complementary and simultaneous modes of evolution” (Stapp, 1999, p. 159), is better explained in terms of permeation of dark matter body with its ordinary counterpart.

A substance ontology is capable of providing adequate physical underpinnings for a comprehensive theory of mind and mental processes, if we conjugate the luminous body with its parallel non-luminous counterpart. The luminous matter confirms the processes of becoming, and the more permanent non-electric dark matter corroborates the being. We can then examine the ontological status of ordinary molecules coupled to dark matter molecules and lay the groundwork for a conceptual framework which draws on a natural, mutually reinforcing quantum relationship between ordinary and dark matter chemistries. That leads to an intriguing concept of an invisible molecular physicality coupled to the visible, akin to mind coupled to the body. This is a powerful metaphor to model the science and philosophy about mental states, permitting to identify them with creative changes involving resonant molecular states of both visible and invisible matter.

Plant, animal and human levels of sentience are apparent in the in the biosphere. The plant sentience is somatic made of axion-e coupled to electron of the plant cells. The animal sentience is somatic plus zoic with axion-e and axion-p coupled respectively to electron and proton of animal cells. Human sentience is somatic, psychic and pneumatic with axion-e, axion-p and axion-n respectively coupled to electron, proton and neumaton of human cells. Human mind then is an invisible bio-system of dark matter molecules parallel to the visible scheme of ordinary fundamental particles. A relational and holistic theory of mind can be advanced emphasizing an axion matrix in resonance with the visible body. They interact with each other along the visible molecular reaction coordinates. Stimulus dependent transformation of visible processes of neuronal activities into thoughts, is then seen to be the outworking through time of the inherent dark-chemical potential. This is a dynamic unity of diversities. Corresponding configurations of ordinary matter and dark matter are in resonance with each other, with the possibility of one recognizing the other.

Dark matter processes are existentially fundamental just as those of the visible substance. It offers a dynamic picture of reality in which the basic unit-events in space-time are not vacuous, but can develop a subjective nature through various physical mechanisms such as non-locality, resonance, replication, storage, retrieval, entanglement etc. The physical processes allows attributes that might be labeled cognition, memory, creativity, awareness, and self awareness. What Whitehead (1978) calls prehension, is parallel computing and resonance between the luminous and the non-luminous bodies. Life is characterized by the co-creativities of visible and invisible physical processes. Reality is a resonant dynamism of parallel processes. This is a genetically active, self-determining substrate that creates a subject-object distinction in a temporal dimension. The self begins at conception as a DNA-governed matter/dark matter resonant process. Experience emerges via resonance states that recognize each other. Recognition is consciousness. This processes is neuronally transduced into thoughts, subjectivities and memories, that can be stored permanently and retrieved repeatedly from the non-electric, non-recycling parallel brain.

Complex objects exist as actual things that stimulate responses in the luminous sensorium. Parallel events occur also in the corresponding non-luminous bodies. These occasions are processes which possess a defining subject-object unity, resulting from the resonance bonds between them. They are reciprocal ‘actions’ of the resonant constituents of the visible-invisible matrix. The entities in resonance act on each other communally, capable of modifying each other in some details by the entangled association. The unity between the entities of increasing orders of interrelated complexities is more like the summation of fields into a single field than that of a collective whole. It transcends the sum total of all the constituents, yet a single totality, a whole substance reality. The parallel dynamic dark matter body of axions explains the existential argument that we can only rightly understand the physical reality around us as a correlation with our own subjectivity that we invisibly experience, allowing a link between experience and consciousness.

Process thoughts, by and large, incorporate the views of nested or concentric elements of reality (Rescher 2000), similar to the ideas of Holon (Koestler, 1967) and Holoarchy (Wilbur, 2000). A dark matter body is a complete totality pervading another complete totality to which it is constantly coupled as a parallel constituent part, thus forming a dynamic relational set. Efficient causation alone is fundamentally insufficient to explain the phenomena of consciousness in ordinary matter. Relationships between ordinary constituents are crucial, but by themselves alone, not causal for consciousness. More importantly the parallel dark constituents enable coherence via closure of these sets of ordinary relationships. One set of temporary electric relationships in the visible substrate closes into a permanent-level set of non-electric relationships in the invisible substrate.

Science, and technology reckon structure as the formal cause resulting from efficient causes. The reverse is often the case, i.e. formal causes produce efficient causes. Dark matter structures as formal cause of an event determine which of the many possibly efficient factors are actually effective. Qualia related subjective experience, not necessarily consciousness, could be purely structural phenomena involving certain axion components. "Consciousness presupposes experience, and not experience consciousness" (Whitehead 1978 [1929], p. 53). Consciousness is a higher order subjectivity, caused by processes of resonance and entanglement between two complete totalities in parallel, one dark and the other visible. Just as the visible is made of electrons, protons and neutrons, the invisible is made of axion-e, axion-p and axion-n. The dark body wholly permeates the visible and is coupled to it, forming a single whole of two wholes. Unlike ordinary particles, the mass of each axion unit and the whole dark body itself is so small that their wave lengths are significantly large. However, the dark counterparts of these living single synapses have such low masses that they are a wave-continuum of the entire dark brain and dark body. They cannot have the frivolities of the visible ordinary single synapses.

Kant’s noumena, things-in-themselves as ultimate reality, exist independent of perception and experience and are beyond detection. They are distinct from phenomena, products of subjectivity, sensible mental intuitions, the things-as-they-appear to the senses, including space and time. Constructivism argues that noumena do not exist and the universe is only phenomena (mental). All this makes Science good for nothing, except for some exciting feelings. For empiricist David Hume, noumenon is meaningless metaphysics. The dark matter and its dark chemistry clarify these subject-object ambiguities. The objects are real.

Suggested ExperimentLet Fp, Fa, Fh be the invisible physical fields for plants, animals and humans respectively. If they are instrumental in effecting the obvious differences (phylogenic) in consciousness and mental powers of plants, animals and humans, they must be coupled physically to the ordinary matter of sentient systems. They may be decoupled in very high magnetic fields producing measurable decoupling signals. Or when they are decoupled via instant death by toxins or electricity or ultraviolet or gamma rays, the decoupling signals may be detected in suitable electromagnetic (EM) fields. Three separate standardized Petri dishes containing the same number of adult human, animal and plant stem cells will be observed before and after the decoupling. Any measurable EM signals will be in the ratio 1:2:3 or

1:2^2:3^3 for human, animal and plant cells, indicating all the three dark matter particles coupled to ordinary particles in the human cells. Conclusion

The present motivation to incorporate dark matter to the study of consciousness comes from the recognition of the necessity of an ontic rather than an epistemic explanation of mind. The dark matter we are proposing is not some nebulous metaphysical entity, but real, physical, discrete charge-less axion prticles as diverse, dynamic and creative as electrons, protons and neutrons of the visible ordinary matter. The ontic randomness of quantum events is inadequate to provide space for mental causation- the possibility that mental acts can influence brain processes. Most approaches to mind body problem based on ordinary matter exceeds the frontiers of present quantum theories and are highly speculative. Equating the activity of neuronal assemblies as the neural correlates of mental representations, offers no conceptual distinction between brain states and mental states, nor any sound formal framework or concrete empirical scenarios for mind-brain correlations, nor any explanation for the absence of panpsychism. Dark- matter entanglement with the visible matter is independent of state reduction. This offers a fundamentally holistic, psychophysically neutral level of reality from which correlated mental and material domains emerge. The problem of the activities of single synapses that confound the dynamics of neural assemblies do not exist in the dark counterparts, because axion bodies have such low masses that they are a wave-continuum permeating the entire dark body. The vagaries of the visible single synapses are thus absent in their dark counterparts, offering a more favorable substrate for mind.

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Table of Contents
January 2008
 

1.       MIND  MATTER   NoeticJournal  Vol  4 # 4, 351- 360 (2003)

2.      Dark chemistry or psychic spin pixels?  

          NeuroQuantology, June 2007,  Vol. 5 # 2: 197-204    ISSN 1303 5150        

            www.neuroquantology.com 

3.      Dark Matter & Dark Chemistry            

        NeuroQuantology Vol 5 # 3 (2007)      

 http://noeticcenter.tripod.com      http://noeticcenter.tripod.com/blog/

 

 

MIND MATTER                                                                      NoeticJournal                                                                                                                                Vl 4#4Oct 03                                                                                                                    

Noetic Journal Vol 4, # 4, 351-360, Oct. 2003                            Nobelist Sir John Eccles Centennial Edition.

Dark Chemistry or Psychic Spin Pixel? NeuroQuantology                                   June 2007; Vol. 5 # 2: 197-204                                                                     Dark Matter & Dark Chemistry NeuroQuantology Vol 5 # 3 (2007)                    Benjamin, Philip. Mind Matter Noetic Journal Vol 4 # 4 , 351- 360 (2003)              Nobelist   SirJohnEccles   Centennial Edition  

http://noeticcenter.tripod.com/        

http://noeticcenter.tripod.com/blog/                                         

DarkChemistry or PsychicSpinPixels?                                                                              Dark  matter & Dark Chemistry            NeuroQuantology                                                                                                                         Vl 5 #2 & 3, 07 

 

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