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Invisible Homo Sapiens
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Saturday, 15 December 2007
Materialism: Ordinary & Extraordinary
Mood:  sharp
Topic: Invisible Homo Sapiens

Philip benjamin, PhD  medinuclear@hotmail.com 

Materialism: Ordinary & Extraodinary 

                                           The Invisible Homo Sapiens

Dark Matter, Dark Chemistry, Dark Biology.

Chemical bonds exist because of stable duet or octet electron configurations and electron spins. If there are three dark matter particles (of negligible mass and zero charge)corresponding to electron, proton and neutron in humans they may form dark atoms, dark molecules, dark cells, dark brain etc and a Dark Body parallel to their  visible counter parts. Perhaps positive and negative gravitons or an as yet unknown force also may be involved.  What is the point? Nothing much, but a mere Invisible Homo sapiens coupled parallel to the visible human body may exist. How about plants and animals and artificial intelligence (AI)? Plants may have only one type of Dark Matter that corresponding to electrons only. Animals may have an additional type corresponding to protons also. But these will not complete a Dark matter body in plants or animals. AI will have no Dark Matter particles coupled to any visible particles since there is no visible or dark DNA to govern these processes. The decreasing intensities of biophoton emission in the living cells of plants, animals and humans support this view. There is also theoretical basis to show that biophoton emission may be the result of interactions of Dark Matter particles with the visible particles. So, Bio-Materialism to be valid must have two components: (1) Ordinary Materialism dealing with Light Matter and (2) Extra Ordinary Materialism dealing with Dark Matter

References 1 MIND MATTER, Noetic Journal (Vol 4, # 4, October 03, Nobelist Sir John Eccles Centennial Edition).

2. NeuroQuantology Journal, June, 2007 Dark Chemistry or Psychic Spin Pixels, ibid September, 2007, for Dark Matter & Dark Chemistry).

3. http://noeticcenter.tripod.com/4. http://noeticcenter.tripod.com/periodictableofpersonalities 

September 5, 2007 

Questions to Ponder:

These are some legitimate questions which the scientific community have to address regarding the mind body problem. 

1. How can mind invisibly function in the visible physical realm, unless it is also physical?

2. If it is physical why should it not be structured according to known physical laws?

3. Will non-electromagnetic matter particles account for the invisible mind as Dark Matter makes up for the missing mass of the universe?  Could they be the axions of the String Theory? 

4. Can there be Dark Chemical Bondsand dark Chemistries involving Axion configurations (Duets, Octets) and  Axion spins as in ordinary chemical bonds?

5. Will gravitons (negative and positive) substitute for electric charges in that Dark Chemistry

6. Could there be three different Axions (Types I, II & III) of negligible mass, but corresponding to electron, proton and neutron respectively?

7. Could it be that plants have only Type I Axion, and animals only Types I & II?

8. Could it be that Humans have all the three Types of Axions such that an Axion hierarchy of atoms, molecules, cells, organs and an axion body coupled parallel to the visible body exist?

9. Could it be that the dark axion bodies in animals and in plants are incomplete and unstable?

10. Could this be the reason that plants emit the most number of  biophotons and humans the least?

11. Could this be an evidence for the theory that axions  interact with ordinary attoms to produce coherent low energy photons?

12. Could it then be surmised that there is an invisible homo sapiens coupled parallel to the visible human body?

13. Could that be an adequate explanation of extensively reported paranormal and psychic phenomena in humans and their absence in plants and animals?

14. Could it be that Humans can influence plants and animals through the axion interactions?

15. Could this explain the vast taxonomic differences in spite of the close genomic similarities?

________________________________________________________________

 

Dark Chemistry or Psychic Spin Pixels?

                             Philip Benjamin, PhD

NeuroQuantology 2007: Vol 5 # 2                                                       NueroQuantology 2007 Vol 5 # 3                                                    Noetic Journal Vol 4 # 4 2003, 351-360                                                       (Nobelist Sir John Eccles Centennial Edition)

Abstract 

The search for universal laws of mental properties cannot be confined to neural correlates and chemical signals alone. Descriptions of subtle mental phenomena best fits characteristics of substance which today is categorized as Dark Matter. Physical concepts that describe spin, chemical bonds, molecular configurations and cellular structures can be extended to dark matter counterparts (axions), to yield an excellent physical model as a basis for the understanding of mental and psychic phenomena. Dark chemistry seems viable and natural. The mounting scientific evidence of different bands of biophotons from different taxa indicates a natural, most likely genetic, selectivity of different types of dark particles in different taxa. Mind and consciousness need not be mystical or magical. Huping Hu and Maoxin Wu (2001, 2004, 2006) try to explain consciousness by attempting to interpret anesthesia in terms of particle spin and quantum entanglement. They report that magnetic pulses applied to the brain, having a general anesthetic also placed in between, and produce anesthesia lasting for many hours, similar to inhalation of the anesthetic. The experiment was reproducible on four subjects (Drinking water, several medications including morphine all exposed to magnetic pulses, laser light, microwave or even flashlight also causes consistently reproducible brain effects in various degrees, when an anesthetic sample was placed in between). They attribute this to the consequence of entanglement between quantum entities inside the brain and those of the chemical substance under study induced by the photons from the magnetic pulses or applied lights. These quantum entities are supposed to be nuclear and/or electron spins, which they claim is basically the "mind-pixel" or the "linchpin" between a dualistic system of coexisting mind and brain. The inference is that an ontological "spin process" cause or mediates consciousness. Though the external anesthetic transfers no spin pattern to the brain cells, they suppose that the spins in the brain and those in the anesthetic interconnect through quantum entanglement, resulting in transfer of actual anesthetic properties of the chemical agent to the brain. It must be noted that drugs act on the brain by means of chemical binding which itself is in the final analysis a spin related phenomenon. Chemical bonding is an attempt by elements to reach stability through electron configurations, where spin plays a vital role. The induction of a spin pattern is innate for any chemical bonding, in as much as chemical bonds are essentially stable electron configurations through spin alignment. So, it might as well be claimed that chemical bonds form an ontological basis for Consciousness. Moreover, since even single celled organisms like paramecium can be anesthetized, anesthesia may not be an ordinary physical (physiologic) phenomenon.Stuart Hameroff (Hamerof and Penrose 2003, Hameroff 2006) dealing with anesthesia to understand consciousness, considers loss of consciousness the essential component of general anesthesia, ensuring amnesia (though not necessarily immobility). He raised the issue of whether classical physics or quantum correlations can account for coherent γ synchrony which he claims is the best measurable neural correlate of consciousness. Understanding the mechanism of action of anesthetic agents may answer scientific and philosophical questions regarding consciousness, and vice versa. Consciousness correlates with γ-synchronized conformational activities of neuronal dendritic proteins in cortex and other brain regions (p.410). "Some collective field effect must be at play, and electromagnetic field-mediated synchrony is untenable. Several experts conclude that a type of quantum field mediates γ-synchrony and consciousness." (p.401). Stuart Hameroff posits: "The transition from unconscious processes to consciousness is a key question.

 

Most authorities agree that only a small fraction of the brain's 100 billion or so neurons manifests the NCC at any one time, although many more are active" (p.402). However, neither the relationship of awareness to the γ-synchronized neural activity, nor the mechanism of γ-electroencephalographic synchrony itself has been explained or verified. Quantum coherence of ordinary particle waves in warm brains is also problematic.Hameroff (2006) suggests that "either a global workspace model of a dynamic, functional architecture for the Neuronal Correlates of Consciousness exists, or consciousness may apparently localize in neural networks of specific brain areas, by virtue of perhaps a type of collective quantum field effect that mediates the γ-synchrony and consciousness (p.401)'. He speculates that the cellular microtubules, considered as bio-resonators, provide the space for this effect.However, spin, neural networks, and tubulins are not unique to humans only. If spins are psychic pixels, the importunate question of why only in the living matter the electron spin is so inimitably active and that too differentially in different taxa, remains unanswered. The whole universe must be mental, since spin is ubiquitous. Panpsychism becomes an essential trait of subatomic particles, which is not empirically established. Also, if consciousness depends on quantum coherence, the conscious process itself is self-destructive since observation entails perturbation and decoherence. Moreover, despite recurrent changes in electron configurations (chemical structures), and the constant recycling of the subatomic particles in the central nervous system (CNS) as well as the whole body, the diverse sensory stimulus-response activities and messaging by distinct neuron populations of the CNS remain coherent. Self is preserved though the mind's substrate is replaced by the perfect equivalents of its functional units. The associations between different elements of each specific event are stored in tact and coherently recalled due to memory binding.The unity of consciousness (binding) is maintained in this ordered chaos by the distributed activities of the central nervous system. Dedicated sets of different neurons presumably process or cause the motley medley of perceptual experiences- visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, tactile, pain etc and mental processes. If a homunculus, a ghost in the machine, does not operate the remote control of the superbly integrated internal monitor to give a unified modality of experience, an infinite regress will result. Different clusters of neurons have been suggested as location where the integration (binding) occurs. Also microtubules and the red blood cells were also suggested. Thiele and Stoner (2003) found that perceptual binding of two moving patterns had no effect on synchronization of the neurons responding to the two patterns. How the subjective awareness of the inner 'virtual reality' screen emerges, regardless of which objective neural correlates relate to the binding process, remains the unsolvable hard problem.The data of Hu and Wu (2006) offers an alternative biophoton messaging phenomenon as a common denominator for consciousness and anesthesia. The findings of Popp (1979) and Popp et al (1979, 1981, 1988a, 1988b, 2002) with magnetic pulses suggest that the anesthetic effect (information) of the agent may have been carried by biophotons to the brain cells. The magnetic pulses produce very stable and coherent, but Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) radiations (biophotons). Popp and co-workers has shown that cells receive, store, and emit biophotons. Valerie G. Petuchov (1983) reported biophoton emission in UV-region ("Biochemiluminescence" in Rus.1983), and attempted to relate this to low mass vacuum particles. There is strong evidence that the phenomena is observed across the taxonomic continuum,with plant cells yielding the highest intensity of biophotons. Electrons also absorb and emit photons. Living cells are electron rich, especially the DNA, and form a storage house for biophotons. Possibly, the frequencies of each biophoton activate specific gene-sequencing through resonance, and induce responses in other biophotons. These are both intra and inter cellular processes, covering the entire organism. Cells may communicate and transmit frequency information from one cell to another through biophotons. Another source of these biophotons may be a union of Dark Matter with fermions.

Syed Ameen (2003) postulated that some components of dark matter may have unique affinity to form an instantaneous "Forced Bosonic Union" with charged Particles, despite the fact that dark matter particles do not interact with most of ordinary matter. They forge this union upon each other at the expense of the energy of the dark matter, imparting to the union the specific characteristic frequencies of biophotons. The cause of biophoton emission may involve an ordinary and dark matter interphase. Since electron has a spin 1/2 and is fermionic and Photon has a spin1, and is Bosonic, a new transformation is established yielding a two particle entangled quantum state which releases photons. Dark Matter Axions are predicted to change to photons in the presence of strong magnetic fields. The Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) by Duffy et al., (2006) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, searches for axions by converting them to radiant energy in a magnetic field. The process is enhanced using a tunable resonant cavity scanning the 460-810 MHz range, as determined by the predicted mass of the axion.Wagner (1999) has theorized that the source of biophotons in plants is a universal dark matter component. This could be axion type particles of (Wayne Hu et al, 2000). The axions form Bose Eistein Condensate (BSC) at ambient temperature (Hu et al, 2000) and obey quantum laws and can form a frequency and wavelength descriptions that can replace the position and time descriptions of atom displacements. This switch can lead to new insights about the dynamics of bio-processes. By means of these wave dynamics, the DNA can control the active transport system of cell membranes and orchestrate the functional integration of cellular processes. Perturbing factors that disrupt the temporal parameters governing the generation or propagation of the waves, function as sources of stress in the system and modifies the information exchange with the molecular environment.In view of the accumulated Biophoton data now available, some common notions
need be re-examined:
1. All living matter is made of luminous quantum particles
2. Living matter of all species have very similar genome
3. However, taxonomic differences are too vast.
4. Certain living matter possesses unique mental phenomena. Quantum Theory
incredibly successful in the physical realm is incomplete so as to explain mental phenomena. A more reasonable position, is to consider that assumption 1 above may be incomplete, not Quantum Theory itself. Entangled to electrons, protons and neutrons respectively, there could be three other physical, but non-luminous (non-detectable) Dark particles. These dark particles are most likely the different theoretical axions derived by Hu et al (2000). Refined calculations set the axion mass between 10-6 to 10-3 electronvolts (of the order of about 10-38 grams).  Kim (1999) reports at least two different kinds of axions.Then, taxonomic differences including differential biophoton emission may be due to basic structural differences not easily observable by EM tools. Popp (1970) and Popp et al (2002) demonstrated forcefully that low-level light emissions are a common property of all living cells. It has different intensities for plant or animal cells, for different cell types, and it can vary from one moment to the next. It is not regular, but comes often as "photon explosion" (spikes), especially when the cells are irritated by outside means.Plants may have a type of dark-matter particles parallel to electrons only; animals may have a second category of additional particles parallel to protons also. Human cells may have a third kind of additional particles parallel to neutrons as well. These Dark particles will be bound with different strength to electrons, protons and neutrons. The strongest binding will be in human cells since all the three dark particles are involved, weaker in animal cells with two different kinds dark particles and weakest in plants having only one kind of dark particles. Gravitons may also be involved, so also spins as in ordinary atoms and molecules, possibly leading to Dark Chemistry parallel to the ordinary Chemistry Noetic Journal Vol 4 # 4 pp 351-359. In humans the three axion particles may configure to form an axion body parallel to the visible body. Biophoton emission may be related to Taxonomy, with a predictable ratio of intensities for the different taxa depending on the strength of binding between the dark and visible particles in each taxon.The axion body will be a holographic matter-field permeating the ordinary particles of matter under the regulatory influences of DNA information. Sensory signals can transduce information on to this field and extract structural information from it, very similar to a robot receiving structural information from a video image via internal codes and. external sensors. Consciousness then will be similar to interference patterns etched on a holographic plate, rather than an encoded volumetric image. Theoretically, this pattern can have an exact spatial location. Spatial structures of consciousness are then real, not mere potentialities in nonphysical forms. The resonances involving both visible and invisible cells as well as the quantum entanglements of particles, at the location they occupy in physical space, may form the substrate for consciousness.
 

Resonance is recognition. Benford (2001) associates Popps findings with precognition. The axion body is the observer and the visible body the performer. The spatial image we subjectively experience is no more a mystical entity beyond the scope of science.Biophotons may have as its source the binding energy between the Dark and Visible particles (Ameen, 2003). This energy may exponentially increase with the number of different particles participating. As the stability increases, the ability of cells to emit biophotons decreases. Then there should be a taxonomic difference in biophoton emission. When normalized, the ratio of intensities in plant, animal and human cells may be (1). 1:2:3 least likely; or (II).3:2:1, more likely; or (III).33:22:1 (9:4:1), most likely. Qualitative results published so far seems to show that plant cells emit about 9 times more than human cells. The instant increase of intensity observed at the moment of cell death (in cell cultures) points to decoupling effects at the interphase of the dark and visible matter in the living cells. If standardized steps are carefully incorporated for experiments already under way, a more systematic and quantitative analysis may be possible.Benford (2001) attributes paranormal cause and effect relationship to biophotons. More precisely, an invisible axion body, which may very well be the cause of biophotons, can remain energetic even after temporary decoupling from the visible body by sleep, anesthesia, hypnosis; near-death experiences etc or even survive death of the visible body. This may also provide a psycho-physical mechanism for the numerous scientific data reported on some kind of "psi" factor in humans. 

Conclusion
Neurology would explain all psychological phenomena in terms of corresponding neural correlates or physiological substrates. Computer models of the brain have no physical regulatory registers that integrate perceptual experiences. Quantum system of coherent superposed states cannot be the external observer, as observation self-destructs coherence by concomitant perturbation. All these and other quantum parameters such as spin are universal, while discernible mental phenomena are not. A homunculus seems
necessary to provide an adequate ontological substrate for mind, to avoid an integration of infinite regress. An invisible Axion body in hypostatic indistinguishable union with the visible human body may be the locus of sentience/conscience. It supervenes and permeates an otherwise lifeless complex edifice of material structures made of ordinary fermions (electrons, protons and neutrons). Coupling can involve spin-spin and/or
graviton interactions. It must be physicality other than the ordinary quantum levels of life. Living organisms may have three different kinds of axions, each corresponding and coupled to electrons, protons and neutrons respectively of an organism with differing coupling strength. This accounts for the taxonomic differences including differences in intensities of biophoton emission, in spite of genetic similarities. This dark body being made of non-electric particles is intransient, offering the possibility that a permanent pattern of life can exist. The axion body is virtually a hologram integrating the patterns of information at various levels. There is a dynamic biophoton process of kindling and quenching the "potential" of this pattern, besides the resonance between the dark and visible bodies of an organism. Resonance between two structures is recognition of each other, the basis of self-awareness. This may also provide a logical physical mechanism for the numerous scientific data reported on some kind of "psi" factor in humans and justify the timeless belief in an ethereal spiritual body or synonymously a physical mind.
 

 References

Ameen, Syed (2003): The Rediscovery of Photons and Dark Matter,  Proceedings of the SPIE conference in San Jose, California,  USA,on Jan.25 -31, 2003 Benford, M. Sue., Can a theory derived from recent experimental data explain precognition and other mysterious spiritual phenomena? The Journal of Religion and Psychical Research, July 2001, 24(3):132-141. http://www.homestead.com/newvistas/PrecognitionArt.html 

Duffy, L. D., P. Sikivie,  D. B. Tanner, S. J. Asztalos, C. Hagmann, D. Kinion, L. J Rosenberg,   K. van Bibber, D. B. Yu, R. F. Bradley, A High Resolution Search for Dark-Matter Axions, Phys. Rev. D 74, 012006 (2006). 

Gurwitsch, A.G: "Über Ursachen der Zellteilung". Arch. Entw. Mech. Org. 51 (1922), 383- 415.  

Gurwitsch, A.G., Das Problem der Zellteilung (The Problem of Cell Division), 1926.

Hameroff, Stuart The Entwined Mysteries of Anesthesia and Consciousness: Is There a Common Underlying Mechanism?, Anesthesiology, 105, 2006, pp. 400-412 Ho, M..W. (1993) The rainbow and the worm: the physics of organisms, 1st edn. World Scientific Publishing Co., SingaporeHu, Wayne., Rennan Barkana and Andrei Gruzinov (Phys. Rev. Letters, 85, 1158
(2000) astro-ph/0003365
 

Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu. Evidence of Non-local Physical, Chemical and Biological Effects Supports Quantum Brain. NeuroQuantology, Vol 4, No 4 (2006) 

Kaznacheyev, V.P.et al, "Distant Intercellular Interactions in a System of Two Tissue Cultures,"Psychoenergetic Systems, Vol. 1, No. 3, March 1976, pp 141-142. Rietdijk, C.W. , Found. Phy., 7(5-6), Jun. 77, p. 351. 

Kim, J.E., ``Axion Theory Review'', in Spooner, N.J.C., and Krudryavtsev,  V., eds., Proc. Of2nd Workshop on The Identification of Dark Matter, 248-260, World Scientific, Singapore, 1999. Petuchov,  

Popp, F.A., Yan, Yu: Radiofrequency and microwave radiation of biological origin - their possible role in  biocommunication. Psychoenergetic Systems, Vol.3 (1979), pp.133-154. 

Popp, F. A., KH Li, WP Mei, M Galle and R Neurohr. Physical aspects of biophotons. Experientia 44, 576-586. 1988a.

Popp, F.A., Gurwitsch, A.A., Inaba, H., Slawinski, J., Cilento G., van Wijk, R., Chwirot B., and Nagl, W: Biophoton Emission (Review), Experientia 44 (1988b), 543-600.

Popp, F.A., Ruth, B., Bahr, W., Böhm, J., Grass, P., Grolig, G., Rattemeyer, M., Schmidt, H.G., and Wulle, P.:Emission of visible and ultraviolet radiation by active biological systems.  Collective Phenomena (Gordon&Breach), Vol.3 (1981), pp.187-214. 
Popp, F. A., "Photon Storage in Biological Systems," Electromagnetic Bio-Information,1979.

Popp, "Photon Storage in Biological Systems," Electromagnetic Bio-Information,1979.

Stapp, Henry PSYCHE, 2(5), May 1995 http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au/v2/psyche-2-05-stapp.html Thiele, A., &

Stoner, G. (2003). Neuronal synchrony does not correlate with
motion coherence in cortical area MT. Nature 421:366-70.
 

Valerie.G (1983), reported biophoton emission in UV-region, Biochemiluminescence in Russian.1983 Popp, F.A., Yan, Yu: Delayed Luminescence of Biological Systems in Terms of Coherent States. Physics Letters A 293 (2002), 93-97. 

Wagner, O.E., Waves in dark matter. Physics Essays, 12(1), 3-10, 1999, Hu H and Wu M. Action potential modulation of neural spin networks suggests possible role of spin in memory and consciousness. NeuroQuantology 2004;2:309-317
______________________________________________________ Dark Matter and Dark Chemistry

NueroQuantology 2007 Vol 5 # 3

Philip Benjamin  medinuclear@hotmail.com

 

AbstractDark Chemistry is a discreet attempt to formulate for humans a plausibledark body parallel to the visible body. It is not an attempt to establisheither the existence or origin of dark matter. Nothing new is added to theplethora of known and unknown particles or forces. Only, profusely availablecurrent data on axions and bonding mechanisms are used to explore thisprospect.

Key Words: dark chemistry, dark matter, spin pixel,                 NeuroQuantology 2007; Vol 5, #3: 322-326 A

Minimalist Method

A Minimalist Method Huping Hu and MaoxinWu (2007) commend Benjamin (2003; 2007)for taking the study of consciousness to where no one has ever gone before, but lament that"dark chemistry" model involves too manyhypothetical and/or exotic entities Is thatgermane? In this paper, I have tried to present the logic of anargument for Dark Chemistry in its essentialterms, shaving it to its simplest provisos-axions.Hu and Wu (2006; 2007) theorize thatconsciousness and its unity spontaneously arisefrom the joint quantum dynamics of thecollapses of entangled quantum states ofnuclear spin ensembles ("NSE")-the"protopsychic" spins or the "mind-pixels".They suggest that everything "dark" in Benjamin(2007) paper can be replaced with "non-localeffects" mediated by spin, and present a two-folddisputation over Dark Chemistry. They contend that if dark matter is the likelycosmological manifestation of quantumentanglement, then the axion dark matter isreplaceable by non-local effects mediated by1 hypothetical primordial spin processes, else Dark Chemistry is convoluted. This is an if-then-else logical fallacy, trying to affirm the consequent of one's pick. The argument seemsto be that proto-psychic primordial spin is an ontological sine qua non and axion being a product of its non local effects need not be considered as a separate entity. That is a red herring. A discreet intent of Dark Chemistry(Benjamin, 2007) was to seminally explore thepossibility of perhaps spin mediated axionbonds similar to electron bonds, none any to establish the certainty or origin of axions.Just as pre-spacetime, non-local effect,non-local chemistry, proactive spins, mind-pixel,self-referential spin, psychic spin, lynchpin,nuclear spin, electron spin, all refer to oneentity "spins" (Hu and Wu, 2006; 2007), so also what Hu and Wu catalog as darkchemistry, dark particle, invisible body, non-electricparticle, axion body, all refer to one entity "axions." Occam's Razor need not besharpened here. Entities are not multiplied beyond the stated basic need of formulating an invisible parallel body. Should an invisible body exist is a time honored question for all ages, including the13th century Franciscan Monk and mathematician philosopher William of Occam. I

f Dark Matter offers a plausible answer, Dark Chemistry parallel to ordinary chemistry is areasonable channel for that. That requires aminimum of three particles parallel to the threeknown ordinary particles in a visible body. Theproblem before a presumed Dark Chemistry isto conjecture some new exotic particles andparry Occam, or accept the copious dataalready available on dark matter. Charge-less(non-electric) axion particles are reported tobe of wide range in mass (though of negligibleorder). Their existence is increasingly becoming indisputable on the grounds of string-theory,astrophysics, empirical data and tenable ongoing experiments. They are profusely discussed inmultiplied publications too numerous to cite here. Thus Dark Chemistry as proposed byBenjamin (2007) is a minimalist approach forthe necessity of exploring an uncharted realm, in full compliance with Occam: "Pluralitas nonest ponenda sine neccesitate" or "plurality should not be posited without necessity." Here the necessity was to "create" an invisible body that is a noumenal reality, not a nominal epiphenomeon.Bonding and Interaction of Particles. Why do matter particles interact at all? It is stilla fiddly question that beset science. The puzzleis that things interact without touching! At the macro level, there is action (gravity) at a distance, even galaxies apart, without contact.The sun attracts the earth and the other planets. Two magnets (substances with acertain precise alignments of electronconfigurations) attract or repel as if they"sense" each other's presence. All that isavailable here is substance. Calling these forcesas "gravity" and "magnetism," is begging thequestion. Gravity does not vanish when massturns to energy. In fact, gravitation does not depend directly on mass, it acts through theenergy (and momentum) of the matter involved. If the matter changes in some way toreduce its rest mass, this would have no longrange effect on the gravitational field, because there is no net change in energy of thegravitating matter. It is generally the totalenergy (rest energy plus kinetic energy etc.)that is important for gravity, whether theparticle in question has a rest mass or not.Gravity bends light rays (beams of photons). It acts on everything, including space itself! What causes it is simply unknown. Quantum gravity isyet another mystery. So is dark energy. Physics does not know what these forces are. At the fundamental level, a force is a thing which is passed between two particles.Winkler et al., (2006), report that atom pairs can also bind together even when the forces are repulsive, rather than attractive. This basically alters the molecular concept.Intuitively, a bound system of atoms implies anattractive force between them. However, toreach an equilibrium configuration, a repulsive force must balance the attraction. Otherwise the system would easily collapse. In thequantum world, attraction is not even needed to form a stable bound system. Repulsion canalso effect a stable binding in the presence of aperiodic spatial perturbation, where the energy cannot vary continuously, but is restricted tospecific values. In order to conserve energy,repulsion between a pair of particles can lead tostable binding, if non-binding would lead thetwo isolated atoms to have energies notpermissible (Fallani et al., 2006).Substance reality in the ordinary material world is evidenced by a continuum ofrelational interactions. For this, chemical bondsare crucial in the formation of complex bio-molecules and all entities beyond the atomicstructure. At the micro level, protons are heldtogether with enormously strong nuclear forces within the submicroscopic nucleus, though likecharges must repel on contact. Indeed they dorepel outside the nuclear potential well. At theatomic and molecular level, electrons are heldtogether in pairs in their orbitals around thenucleus, though we expect them to stronglyrepel each other. Electric charges alone cannotaccount for chemical bonding, stable electronconfigurations (periodicity of elements) is also akey factor. Mendeleev's chemical periodicity ofelements, a law of nature, is not defined by a simple numerical relationship, or nomologicalformulae. Chemists attribute stability of atomsand molecules to duet and octet electron configurations, extrapolated from the empirical stability of the noble gases. Generally, atomswith incomplete outer electron shells arereactive. They contribute or share electronsbetween them to achieve the stable duet oroctet configurations.Quantum Mechanics is not in conflictwith the chemical model of a molecule as a rigidstructure of nuclei held together by sharedelectrons. The electron shells are only the quantum energy levels of electrons within eachatom. The distribution of electrons within an energy level forms the electron clouds, or the atomic orbitals. An atomic orbital has a determined form and orientation, and canmaximally contain two electrons, each in a different spin state, up or down. These two electron waves 'mix' in a way that yields thelowest energy. The atom itself strives for atotally saturated outer octet or duet shell, because this is a very stable state (inert Noblegas configurations). Quantum chemistry gives an almost full account of how atoms combine into molecules (and molecular ions). The theorem is only an approximation due to special quantum effects, particularly in excited states, for instance vibrational coupling that involvestransitions between two structures. Energy states and electron configuration determine theway atoms can form bonds with each other resulting in molecular structures. In reality, it isspatial, temporal and spin relationships between electrons, each of which is unaware of itself and the relationships with each other. Dark matter also may have analogous spin affinities.Under suitable external conditions, amolecular dynamic system consisting of two ormore element-systems results in the creation of a fundamentally real and stable new unit ofphysicality, a new totality. For example, thedynamic natural law governing two atoms atcertain energy levels can be explained byquantum chemical determination of the energystates of atoms and molecules. According tothis law, every free system tends toward thehighest order of stability by striving to reach the lowest possible energy state. If two negatively charged electrons from the visible matter can reach a configurationally stable combination in a philosophically sound atomic or molecular orbital, it is not beyond the realm of reason to postulate a similar atomic and molecular configuration for axions via spins and possibly gravitons or gravitinos. Quantum numbers abound in atomic theory. They represent quantum possibilities of energy levels that emerge, and could be applicable to the dark matter also.  

As in ordinary matter, dark-atoms will have the principal quantum number n, which can take thevalues 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ...n. Each n will have a principal energy level or a dark shell. Each shellwill have n subshells. Each subshell has one ormore orbitals within it; the s, p, d, f, g subshellshave 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 orbitals respectively. The rulesof placing axion-e within dark shells with nucleimade of axion-p and axion-n, may form theDark Matter Aufbau principle and darkchemistries, yielding dark molecules, dark cellsand dark bodies. Akin to the lighter ordinaryatomic species, the lower Axion atoms, may have two main orbitals: the spherical orbitals orthe s-orbital of the lowest energy levels (withthe axion nucleus in the center), the dumbbell-shaped orbitals or p-orbitals of next higherenergy levels (with the axion nucleus in the'waist').The rules of molecular structure, thedirected valence bonds for each reactive atomicelement, are natural laws governing conversionof simpler components into larger complexities.They could be applicable to axions also. The major difference is, while the wave-likeproperties of ordinary atoms or molecules canbe ignored for most practical purposes, they are significant for axions, since they haverelatively negligible masses.

Taxonomy, Dark Chemistry and Consciousness

On taxonomic grounds, Benjamin (2003; 2007)argues that in living matter three differentaxions exist parallel to electron, proton andneutron, respectively. Tentatively, they may bedesignated as axion-e, axion-p and axion-n.The electron/axion-e pairs occur in all taxa. Additionally, proton/axion-p pairs occur inanimals. Adding to both are neutron/axion-pairs occurring only in humans. The axion spin will have similar role as the fermion spin in theatomic and molecular structure of ordinarymatter. Positive and negative gravitons orgravitinos in axions may play the role ofnegative and positive charges in ordinary atoms.Resonance and entanglement between the darkand light particles has a built-in recognition faculty for awareness and self-awareness,respectively.Due to this differential inclusion ofaxions in each taxon, a complete dark structurethat is parallel to the visible structure is absent in plants. Being less bound, the axion interaction with the visible matter is the highestin plants. This could be the reason for the maximum biophoton emission in live cells of plants, according to references cited in Benjamin (2007). In animals, the stability of adark body is increased by an order of at least 2,due to the added proton/axion-p pairs. This leads to lesser biophoton emission. In humansthe stability of the dark parallel soma is the highest by an order of 3 at least, resulting fromthe triple binding of three different axions,leading to the highest intensity of biophoton emission. Presently available data on biophotons emission from the three taxa, which are ratherqualitative, support this argument.Standardization and quantitization of biophoton emission experiments with living cells arepossible and needed.In this scheme of ontic reality, threedifferent but integrated factors become apparent in live humans: 1.A Light Soma(electric) 2.A parallel Dark Soma (non-electric)3.A holistic Process (both dark and light).Unlike the light body, the dark soma is intransient being not fully subject to the laws of entropy. The Process consists of both light anddark components. When the dark soma decouples the light body, the light processes cease to exist, but the dark processes persistwith the dark body.No part of any living system ismaterially constant, except its structural form.The live cells are continually changing by growth, decay and replacement of its component fundamental particles. A steady state of flux is pervasive for the chemistry of these structures. Every 40 seconds the actinfilaments in dendrites need replacing (Star et al.,2002). The NMDA receptors are replacedevery five days (Shimizu et al., 2000). Activity level controls postsynaptic organization andsignaling via the ubiquitin-proteasome system.The whole post-synaptic density (PSD) - theprotein packed zone that powers synapticactivity - is regenerated, molecule by molecule,almost by the hour (Ehlers, 2003). Though Myelin and RNA molecules are known to lastmonths, and DNA is fairly stable, they all undergo recurrent repairs and systematicsubstitution of old constituent particles with new.The whole brain is recycled constantly,about every other month, synapses being themost active. Only their shapes are maintained.Their component macro molecules disintegrate within minutes of their formation, as revealed by fluorescent tagging. They cannot maintain asteady identity. The new particles cannot carry the old information (memories), but systemic loss of memories or Kaleidoscopic personalities are not the norm. Evidently, the mind substratemust be different from any electromagnetic field associated with the molecules. This molecular chaos of ordinary living matter, raises the issue of unity, wholeness, and stability of consciousness and demands an extraordinary intransient substrate. A new kind of physical matter seems lurking in the dark with vague properties. What could be more appropriatethan the extra ordinary dark matter as thismind stuff? Mental states and material states will beboth physical, if they are distinguished as extraordinary and ordinary materialphenomena. The brain is then a many-particlesystem of neurons permeated by their axion counterparts, at an energy level which directly correlates with mental activity. Mental activity isco-produced by the visible brain and the invisible axion counterpart. It is more likely that the entire visible body, permeated by an invisible body of axions is involved in consciousness. Self-consciousness could be aproduct of mutually recognizing resonant structures. The restrictions of standardquantum mechanics are not relevant here, sincethe axion masses are negligibly small. If mental states are the primary objects of reference, the axion model shows explicatory features in avery subtle and refined manner.The mental and material manifestations may inherit mutual correlations due to the factthat they are jointly caused by the visible body and the permeating invisible body, con-centeringinto a holistic hypostasis. There is thepossibility of a direct causal interaction between mental and material domains. This scheme can explain the ubiquitous correlations betweenmental states and brain states, better than ordinary materialism.

Conclusion

Dark Chemistry could very well be the choiceof the simplest that best fits the facts, among many theories from 'collapse', 'pilot wave','neural-correlates', 'back-action quanta', 'epi-phenomenon','explicate-implicate orders','psychic spin pixels' to 'many-worlds'. These are all as the heads of the fabled hydra, insolubly multi-faceted postulates, and at times tend tobe just fairy tales for adults. As for William ofOccam, his somatic luminous fermions are notall lost in the oozy meadow of insentient space-time,if they were ever entangled with charge-less axions which are not subject to entropylaws as ordinary matter is. Only his axion soma,having lost the energy of the visible body, may be at a very low (possibly negative) energystate, waiting to be energized from an externalsource, either for luminous manifestation or forreunion with the ex-entangled particle partners.This is also true for another William, Roger, theBaptist Minister and founder of Rhode Island State whose body with casket and all was eatenup by the roots of an apple tree! The inadvertent apple-cheeked "cannibals" never had to be concerned, as long as the axion theory of a dark soma is correct. Non-local spin effects by themselves have no such explanatory powers.  

References

Benjamin P. Mind Matter; Noetic Journal 2003: 4, 351-359. http://noeticcenter.tripod.com

Benjamin P. Dark Chemistry or Psychic Spin Pixel?NeuroQuantology 2007;2:197-304.

Beck F, and Eccles J. Quantum aspects of brain activityand the role of consciousness. Proceedings of theNational Academy of Sciences of the USA1992;89:11357-11361.

Beck F. Quantum brain dynamics and consciousness. InThe Physical Nature of Consciousness, ed. by P.van Loocke, Benjamins, Amsterdam, pp. 83-116.2001.Ehlers, M.D. Neuroscience. Nature: 2003, 6, 231-242

.Fallani, L and Inguscio, M. Coupling of MutuallyRepulsive Atoms. Nature 2006, 441:820.Hu H, Wu M. Evidence of Non-local Physical, Chemicaland Biological Effects Supports Quantum Brain.NeuroQuantology; 2006;4:291-306.

Hu H, Wu M. On Dark Chemistry What's Dark Matter and How Mind InfluencesBrain Through Proactive Spin. NeuroQuantology2007;5:205-213.

Shimizu E.Y, Tang P, Rampon, C, Tsien JZ. NMDAReceptors. Science 2000:290:1170.

Star EN, Kwiatkowski DJ & Murthy VN. RapidTurnover of Actin in Dendritic Spines and its Regulation by Activity. Nature Neuroscience;2002;5:239-246.

Winkler K. et al. Atom Pairs Bound through Repulsion Nature 2006;441:853-856

 


Posted by noeticcenter at 10:30 AM EST
Updated: Sunday, 16 December 2007 1:44 PM EST

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